COM exam 2

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Terms in this set (...)

hearing
the act of receiving sound
listening
the active process of receiving, constructing meaning from, and responding to spoken and/or nonverbal messages. it involves the ability to retain information, as well as react empathically and/or appreaciatively to spoken and/or non-verbal messages
selective attention
the sustained focus we give to stimuli we deem important
automatic attention
the instinctive focus we give to stimuli signaling a change in our surroundings, stimuli that we deem important, or stimuli that we perceive to signal danger
working memory
the part of our consciousness that interprets and assigns meaning to stimuli we pay attention to
short- term memory
a temporary storage place for information
long-term memory
our permanent storage place for information including but not limited to past experiences; language; values; knowledge; images of people; memories of sights, sounds, and smells; and even fantasies
schema
organizational "filing systems" for thoughts held in long-term memory
active listening
involved listening with a purpose
empathic listening
listening with a purpose and attempting to understand the other person
critical listening
listening that challenges the speaker's message by evaluating it's accuracy, meaningfulness, and utility
listening for enjoyment
situations involving relaxing, fun, or emotionally stimulating information
critical thinking
analyzing the speaker, the situation, and the speaker's ideas to make critical judgments about the message being presented
first-person observation
observations based on something that you personally have sensed
second-person observation
a report of what another person observed
source credibility
the extent to which the speaker is perceived as competent to make the claims he or she is making
lecture listening
the ability to listen to, mentally process, and recall lecture information
lecture cues
verbal or nonverbal signals that stress points or indicate transitions between ideas during a lecture
information literacy
the ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and effectively use the information needed
emoticons
typographic symbols showing emotional meaning
organizations
social collectives, or groups of people, in which activities are coordinated to achieve both individual and collective goals
organizational communication
the ways in which groups of people both maintain structure and order through their symbolic interactions and allow individual actors the freedom to accomplish their goals
economic orientation
organizations that manufacture products and/or offer services for consumers
political orientation
organizations that generate and distribute power and control within society
integration orientation
organizations that help to mediate and resolve discord among members of society
pattern-maintenance orientation
organizations that promote cultural and educational regularity and development within society
communication networks
patterns of relationships through which information flows in an organization
formal communication
messages that follow prescribed channels of communication throughout the organization
downward communication
messages flowing from superiors to subordinates
upward communication
messages flowing from subordinates to superiors
horizontal communication
messages between members of an organization with equal power
informal communication
any interaction that does not generally follow the formal structure of the organization but emerges out of natural social interaction among organization members
objective statement
an articulation of your goals
chronological resume
a document that organizes your credentials over time
functional resume
a document that organizes your credentials by type of function performed
cover letter
a short letter introducing you and your resume to an interviewer
network
an intricate web of contacts and relationships designed to benefit the participants
job description
a document that defines the job in terms of its content and scope
immediacy
communication behaviors intended to create perceptions of psychological closeness with others
supportive communication
listening with empathy, acknowledging other's feelings, and engaging in dialogue to help others maintain a sense of personal control
strategic ambiguity
the purposeful use of symbols to allow multiple interpretations of messages
interaction management
establishing a smooth pattern of interaction that allows a clear flow between topics and ideas
collaborative style
thoughtful negotiation and reasoned compromise
customer service encounter
the moment of interaction between the customer and the firm
emotional labor
jobs in which employees are expected to display certain feelings in order to satisfy organizational role expectations
sexual harrassment
unwelcome, unsolicited, repeated behavior of a sexual nature
quid pro quo sexual harrassment
a situation in which an employee is offered a reward or is threatened with punishment based on his or her participation in a sexual activity
hostile work environment sexual harassment
conditions in the work place that are sexually offensive, intimidating, or hostile and that affect an individual's ability to perform his or her job
source credibility
the audience's perception of your effectiveness as a speaker
competence
the degree to which the speaker is perceived as skilled, reliable, experienced, qualified, authoritative, and informed; an aspect of credibility
trustworthiness
the degree to which the speaker is perceived as honest, fair, sincere, honorable, friendly, and kind; an aspect of credibility
dynamism
the extent to which the speaker is perceived as bold, active, energetic, strong, empathic, and assertive; and aspect of credibility
common ground
also known as co-orientation, the degree to which the speaker's values, beliefs, attitudes, and interests are shared with the audience; an aspect of credibility
sleeper effect
a change of audience opinion caused by the separation of the message content from its source over a period of time
personal experience
use of your own life as a source of information
reference librarian
a librarian specifically trained to help you find sources of information
search engine
a program on the internet that allows users to search for information
bibliographic references
complete citations that appear in the "references" or "works cited" section of your speech outline
internal references
brief notations indicating a bibliographic reference that contains the details you are using in your speech
verbal citations
oral explanations of who the source is, how recent the information is, and what the source's qualifications are
supporting materials
information you can use to substantiate your arguments and to clarify your position
examples
specific instances used to illustrate your point
surveys
studies in which a limited number of questions are answered by a sample of the population to discover opinions on issues
testimonial evidence
written or oral statements of others' experience used by a speaker to substantiate or clarify a point
lay testimony
statements made by an ordinary person that substantiate or support what you say
expert testimony
statements made by someone who has special knowledge or expertise about an issue or idea
celebrity testimony
statements made by a public figure who is known to the audience
statistics
numbers that summarize numerical information or compare quantities
analogy
a comparison of things in some respects, especially in position or function, that are otherwise dissimilar
explanation
a clarification of what something is or how it works
definitions
determinations of meaning through description, simplification, examples, analysis, comparison, explanation, or illustration
plagiarism
the intentional use of information from another source without crediting the source
incremental plagiarism
the intentional or unintentional use of information from one or more sources without fully divulging how much information is directly quoted
two-sided argument
a source advocating one position presents an argument from the opposite viewpoint and then goes on to refute that argument
performance orientation
seeing your presentation as a performance and your audience as critics
communication orientation
your focus as a speaker is to achieve your comunicative goals
impromptu delivery
a speech that has little or no preparation time and is made up along the way
manuscript delivery
a speech that is written word-for-word using a tone and language that are appropriate for speaking rather than reading
memorized delivery
a speech is written as a manuscript and then delivered from memory
extemporaneous delivery
a speech that is practiced thoroughly, but not memorized, using a speaker's notes, not a manuscript
non-fluencies
verbal mistakes such as false starts, mispronunciations or excessive ah's and um's
vocalized pauses
filler words such as "um" and "ah"
visual aids
visual elements that help your audience receive your message
titles
describe the general focus of a graphic slide
labels
identify specific elements of a graphic slide
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