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The number of waves or pulses per second.. usually measured in Hz..turned up to pt. tolerance or until you get desired response(sensory or motor)
The magnitude of the current or voltage, the distance from the zero line to the peak or trough
The time from the beginning of the first phase to the end of the last phase of one pulse, the width of the pulse
what is a waveform produced by the interference of two medium frequency sinusoidal AC's
Ratio of on time to total cycle time; On 10 sec, off 50 sec = 10/60 x 100= 16% or 1:6 duty cycle. The higher the duty cycle the more fatiguing
Flow or movement of charged particles through a conductor following an applied electrical field
what is electrical force driving charged particles through a conductor between two regions or points
what is a more accurate descriptor of the relationship between voltage and current than resistance
Symmetrical biphasic pulsed
what type of estim is most comfortable for patients and provides the most torque for muscle strengthening
what is a series of pulses delivered in an "envelope" as singe pulse also called a pulse train
The homeostasis that exists between eithor side of the cell membrane. Inside of the cell is -, outside is +, -70mV
when the inside of the cell membrane returns to more negative state & resting potential is restored
opening of Na channels pulls Na in to the cell by the negative charge inside and because of the larger concentration of Na outside the cell
what happens during the Depolarization of an action potential
Channels close and K channels open; K is pushed out of the cell because of the large concentration of K inside of the cell and the positive charge inside the cell
what happens during the Repolarization of an action potential
Absolute refractory period
when the membrane is depolarized, and it is not possible to create another Action potential
what is the minimum amount of electrical current required to depolarize the nerve and produce and Action potential in a specific type of nerve
Nerve with a large diameter that takes a lower current amplitude and shorter pulse width to depolarize
Nerves with a medium diameter that takes a medium current amplitude and medium pulse width to depolarize
Pain-transmitting C fibers
Nerves with a small diameter that takes a high current amplitude and large pulse width to depolarize
Electrical stimulation for tissue repair;edema reduction, increase in circulation, wound and fracture healing via HVPC
Causes proteins to coagulate and hardens tissue due to an increase in acidity below the electrode
Causes proteins to liquify and softens tissues due to an increase in alkalinity below the electrode
All or non principle
single neurons or single motor units respond completely or not at all to an electrical stimulus
a physical state in a muscle when action potentials from nerves arrive at the skeletal muscle motor end plate rapidly enough to cause a steady contraction
area on the surface of the skin that is hypersensitive to flow. A place above where blood vessels and nerve bundles enter the muscle
shape of the positive phase and the negative phase of a single biphasic pulse are different but the amount of current delivered by each is the same, no net effect
shape of the positive phase and the negative phase of a single biphasic pulse are different and the amount of current delivered by each is not the same, there can be a net effect
Law of DuBois Reymond
The amplitude, rise time, and pulse width of a stimulus must be adequate to depolarize a membrane and cause a contraction
warm tissues, long pathway, small electrodes, oil, hair, dry skin, adipose, bone, ligaments, tendons
cold tissues, short pathway, large electrodes, clean skin, moist skin, motor points
density is shallow, less selectivity, stronger contraction, more comfortable, greater current spread
density is deeper, less current spread, better selectivity, weaker contraction , less comfort
1 channel, one small electrode is at the treatment site, with a larger dispersive pad placed proximally; ionto, woundcare
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