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Respiratory system: Function

exchange gases between atmosphere and blood (cells)

Events of Respiratory system

ventilation (inhale/exhale), gas exchange-air & lungs, gas transport (through hemoglobin), gas exchange (cell using it) -blood & cells, cellular respiration

mucous membrane of the Respiratory tract

pseudo stratified cilliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells, rich in blood vessels

Nasal cavity structure

nasal concha, nasal septum, mucous membrane, para-nasal sinuses

Nasal concha

3 passages ways, superior,, middle, and ingerior

Nasal septum

bony and cartilage portions

paranasal sinuses

space in skull bones, open into nasal cavity, reduces skull weight, changes voice quality, frontal, maxillary, spheroid ethmoid

nasal cavity function

traps dust particles-hair, mucous, cilia, warms air-rich blood vessel supply, humidifies air.

pharynx regions

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx


voice box: infront (trachea & esphogus behind), cartilage: thyroid, cricoid, aretynoid, epiglottis, vocal ligaments: true and false, mucous membrane: pseudo stratified cilliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells


cartilage rings: help keep it from collapsing ( open ->air flow), pseudo stratified cilliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

larynx structure

move aretynoid cartilage to close rim of glottis, move aretynoid/thyroid cartilage to stretch vocal cords

bronchial tree

highly branched airway, blind ended passageway, enters lung at hilus


air passageways and blood vessels, soft, spongy, elastic, right lung:3 lobes, left lung: 2 lobes

bronchial tree: bronchi

primary bronchus-> lung, secondary bronchus -> lobe, tertiary bronchus -> segment

Factors affecting 02 binding

more O2 release (shift curve to the right) caused by:high CO2, low pH, higher temp, exist while working out

positive cooperativity, bind O2 tightly @high P.P, not letting it go ( as in lungs/arteries), Binds O2 less tightly @ lower P.P releasing it (as in tissue/vein), @10,000 ft, Hb=90% saturated, CO binds irreversibly

Oxygen binding to hemoglobin

dissolved in blood: 7% of total, bound to hemoglobin: 23 of total: doesn't bound to heme group, formation of bicarbonate: 70% of total

Transport of CO2

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