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Fundamentals of Speech

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To say that public speaking is a way to make a difference about something we care about is to recognize that public speaking is
a form of empowerment
Many of the skills used in public speaking are the same as those used in everyday conversation. These skills include
organizing your thoughts logically, tailoring your message to your audience, and adapting to listener feedback
Heather was in the midst of an excellent speech. .
There is no such thing as a perfect speech.
How much time does the average adult spend in conversation?
about 30% of waking hours
Jamal attended the campus president's speech about tuition increases..
Mary and Jamal received the message through different channels
Someone coughing in the audience or walking in late during a presentation are examples of what element in the speech communication process?
interference
Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to deal with nervousness in your speeches?
Turn negative thoughts into positive thoughts
As you listen to a speech about campus crime, you relate the speaker's ideas to your own knowledge, goals, and experience. According to your textbook, you are filtering the speech through your own
frame of reference
In the midst of a speech about volcanoes, a speaker notices quizzical expression on the faces of her listeners. In response, she says, "Let me explain that point again to make sure it's clear" When this happens, the speaker is
adapting to feedback
In public speaking, sound ethical decisions involve weighing potential course of action against
a set of ethical guidelines or standards
Which of the following is presented in your textbook as a guideline for ethical speechmaking?
Make sure your goals are ethically sound
Tanya went to the beach instead of staying in town and working on her speech . .
Tanya is guilty of global plagiarism
When Sophia attended the first discussion section for her math class and heard her instructor begin speaking with an unfamiliar accent, she immediately decided, "I won't learn anything from this teacher". .
Avoid prejudging the speaker.
Which of the following is presented in your textbook as a guideline for ethical speechmaking?
Be fully prepared for each speech.
Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to avoid patchwork plagiarism?
Consult a large number of sources in your research.
Emil began his research early and found some several excellent sources for his informative speech. He cut and pasted several passages from Web sites into a file in his word processor. .
Emil is guilty of incremental plagiarism.
Leon is listening to his chemistry instructor review steps for this week's lab assignment. Because Leon has to understand and follow these directions carefully, your textbook would say he is engaging in
comprehensive listening
Tara's campus organization has invited several travel agents to speak to the group about their best deals on trips for spring break. As Tara listens, she is deciding which travel package is best for her. During the presentation, she is engaging in which form of listening?
critical listening
As Jenell listened to her classmate's speech explaining the differences between collision insurance and comprehensive insurance, it reminded her that she needed to pay her insurance bill at the end of the day. Rather than listening to the speaker, she started thinking about all the other things she had to do that day. The primary cause of Jenell's poor listening is
not concentrating
Alena is listening to a speaker's evidence during a speech on genetically modified foods. According to your textbook, Alena should be asking
Is the evidence from objective sources? Is the evidence consistent with the speaker's delivery? Is the evidence relevant to the speaker's claims?
Even wen we are listening carefully, we usually grasp only about ____ percent of what we hear.
50%
Although most people speak at a rate of 120 to 150 words per minute, the brain can process words at a rate of
400 to 800 words a minute
Margaret is passionately committed to animal rights. At an evening lecture required for her biology class, she learned that the title of the speaker's talk was "The Importance of Animal Experimentation to Medical Advances" Offended and sure that the speaker had nothing ethical or interesting to say, Margaret paid no attention to the lecture. The primary cause of Margaret's poor listening was
jumping to conclusions
Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a method of brainstorming for a speech topic?
clustering, taking a personal inventory, and conducting an Internet search
According to your textbook, the central idea of a speech should
encapsulate the major ideas of your speech and be phrased as a statement rather than a question
When the general purpose of your speech is to _____, you act primarily as an advocate.
persuade
When the general purpose of your speech is to _____, you act primarily as a teacher or lecturer.
inform
According to your textbook, what is the most important early step in the process of developing a successful speech?
formulating the specific purpose
"To persuade my audience to give blood and to support the Wilderness Society" is a poorly phrased specific purpose statement for a classroom speech because it
contains two unrelated ideas
"You can increase your gas mileage by reducing the weight in your car, doing regular maintenance, and reducing your driving speed" is an example of a
central idea
According to your textbook, you can make a Google search more precise by
developing a search strategy, putting phrases in quotation marks, and joining search terms with plus signs
Encyclopedias, yearbooks, biographical aids, and quotation books are all examples of
reference works
Academic databases are the best place to look for
articles in scholarly journals
What are the three criteria discussed in your textbook for assessing the soundness of documents found on the Internet?
authorship, sponsorship, and recency
While doing research for his speech, Aaron was not able to identify the author of an internet document titled "What Can and Cannot Be Patented". According to your textbook, what should Aaron do next to assess the credibility of the document?
Try to determine the sponsoring organization for the document
You have found statistics on the Internet that you would like to use in your speech. Before you do, you need to make sure that
they come from a credible author or sponsoring organization, you can find the date on which they were published, posted, or updated, and the statistics are recent enough to make them reliable for your speech
The more _____ your examples, the greater impact they are likely to have.
vivid
How does the following excerpt from a classroom speech violate the guidelines for the use of statistics presented in your textbook?
It doesn't cite a qualified source for the statistics.
Jeff began his speech by saying : Imagine that you are on a deserted island - palm trees sway in the breeze, the warm sun is on your face. . . What kind of supporting material did Jeff use in his introduction?
hypothetical example
Examples are especially helpful as supporting materials because they
personalize your ideas
Lucy wanted to know what percentage of students plan to attend graduate or professional schools after college, so she distributed a survey in three of her classes. Based on the results, Lucy concluded that nearly a third of college students plan to continue their education further. What is wrong with the way she used the statistical data from the survey?
Lucy's sample isn't representative of college students as a whole
To give statistics greater impact, a speaker should
use statistics sparingly
According to your textbook, how might a speaker clarify the statistics in the following speech excerpt? Although women are catching up to men in many fields. .
Use a visual aid to illustrate statistical trends
To say that the mode salary of a major league baseball player is $600,000 is to say that
more major league baseball players earn $600,000 than any other salary
The mean is the statistical measure that corresponds to what popularly called
the average
Accomplished speakers consider _____ "the very life of the speech"
testimony
What suggestion presented in your textbook for using supporting materials is used in the following speech excerpt? Since it first opened for business, McDonald's has sold over 100 billion hamburgers. .
Use examples to quantify ideas
The most effective order of main points in a speech depends above all on your topic, purpose, and
audience
Problem-solution order is most appropriate for organizing _____ speeches
persuasive
Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience about the major geographical regions of Mexico?"
spatial
Here are the main points for an informative speech about the history of chocolate. . These main points are arranged in ______ order
chronological
Because of his family's medical history, Alan decided to give his informative speech on sickle-cell anemia. When he finished work on the speech, it ha the following main points. . Alan's main points were arranged in _____ order
causal
Which of the following does your textbook recommend for preparing main points?
Balance the amount of time given to each main point, try to use the same pattern of wording for each main point, keep main points clearly separate from one another.
Which organization method is used in a speech with the following main points?
I. Caused by the bite of infected mosquitos, West Nile virus has spread through U.S. .
causal
Even when you use other interest-arousing lures in a speech introduction, you should always
relate the topic to the audience
If you were giving an informative speech to your classmates on the subject of photokinesis, you would probably include a ______ in your introduction.
definition
When preparing an introduction for a speech to a hostile audience, you should be especially careful to
establish credibility and goodwill
As your textbook explains, when preparing a speech introduction, you should usually
make the introduction about 10 to 20 percent of the entire speech
According to your textbook, the best time to work out the exact wording of a speech introduction is
after you prepare the body of the speech
When preparing a speech introduction, your textbook recommends that you
keep an eye out for introductory material as you research your speech
The following passage from a speech introduction is an example of ______. "After attending a seminar on currency security, I became fascinated by the technology. . "
establishing the speaker's credibility
Molly began her speech as follows : I want all of you to think about your day. . .What methods for gaining attention and interest with Molly use?
questioning the audience and relating the topic to the audience
In her persuasive speech, Josina concluded with the following statement : So the next time you see flyers around campus announcing a blood drive, decided that this will be your moment to get involved. . What method of concluding her speech did she use?
appeal to action
Ryo is working on the preparation outline for his informative speech. According to your textbook, his outline should
state main points and sub-points in full sentences and contain a bibliography
According to your book, transitions, internal summaries, and other connectives should be
included in the preparation outline
Which of the following is a correctly worded main point for a speech preparation outline?
The ancestry of the domestic dog can be directly traced to the wolf
Which of the following is mentioned in your textbook as a guideline for a preparation outline?
Label the introduction, body, and conclusion
According to your textbook, a speaking outline
contains delivery cues for the speaker
Both a preparation outline and speaking outline should
use a consistent pattern of symbolization and indention
Arranged in random order below are the main point, two sub-points, and two sub-subpoints from a speech preparation outline. Which is the main point?
Two types of skin cancer are melanoma and basal cell carcinoma.
Visual aids are often helpful to a speaker because they can
enhance the clarity of a speaker's ideas, make information more interesting to listeners, and help listeners retain a speaker's ideas.
Which of the following would probable we the best kind of visual aid to show changes in the homicide rate in Washington, D.C. over the past twenty years?
a line graph
While working on his speech, Lebron decided to use a visual showing the proportions of the U.S. federal budget spent in four major areas - defense, entitlement programs, non entitlement programs, and miscellaneous spending. What type of visual aid should he use?
a pie graph
If you wanted to compare the number of men and the number of women who earned bachelor's degrees in engineering, science, and the humanities in 2010, you would probably use a
bar graph
Which of the following does your textbook present as a guideline for preparing visual aids?
keep visual aids simple
As your textbook explains, visual aids are most effective when they are displayed
only while the speaker is discussing them
Alain is planning to use video as a visual aid in his persuasive speech. According to your textbook, he should
limit the video to about 30 seconds in length, edit the video to illustrate his point clearly and precisely, and make sure the video will project clearly on a large screen or monitor
Each of the following is presented in your textbook as a guideline for presenting visual aids except
Pass small visual aids among the audience
According to your textbook, when using Powerpoint in a speech, you should
use Powerpoint only where it is needed to communicate with your ideas
Leo is planning to use visual aids for his informative speech. Which of the following recommendations will he find in your textbook?
display visual aids only when discussing them and display visual aids where listeners can see them