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Consumer Behavior Final Exam
Terms in this set (37)
Is the study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires.
The name companies use to identify their customers who consume their products in large volumes.
Why is it important for businesses to learn about their heavy users
• Marketers used the 80/20 rule: (20 % of users make up for 80% of sales)
• This is why building brand loyalty is so imperative
• Businesses are more likely to be successful if they can identify what groups are purchasing their brands, which is helpful since this can be their target market and they can specifically market to them
is information that you collect specifically for the purpose of your research project.
Data that was collected by someone other than the user. (The data was originally collected for some other purpose/experiment)
is primarily exploratory research. It is used to gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations
a scientific procedure undertaken to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact.
Experiments involving a subject that has not been randomly selected. People question the validity of these experiments.
What is the difference between correlation versus causation?
A correlation between variables, however, does not automatically mean that the change in one variable is the cause of the change in the values of the other variable. Causation indicates that one event is the result of the occurrence of the other event; i.e. there is a causal relationship between the two events
The three stages of perception.
Exposure, Attention, Interpretation
refers to the minimum amount of stimulation a person can detect on any given sensory channel.
refers to the ability of a sensory system to detect changes in or differences between two stimuli.
What is the difference between classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning
Both classical conditioning and operant conditioning are processes that lead to learning. Classical conditioning pairs two stimuli, while operant conditioning pairs behavior and response. ... Also, classical conditioning always works with involuntary responses, while operant conditioning works with voluntary behaviors.
The phenomenon that occurs when people react to other similar stimuli in much the same way they respond to the original stimulus
The three stages of information processing (memory
• Encoding (information enters in a way the system will recognize)
• Storage Stage (we integrate this knowledge with what is already in memory and "warehouse" it until it is needed
• Retrieval (we access desired information)
How is associative memory like a spider web
You remember information in "nodes" (concepts, feelings, events)
An organized collection of beliefs, associations
A learned schema containing a sequence of events an individual expects to occur. "The restaurant script"
The two basic measures of memory and how they differ from one another.
Sensory Memories: Stores information we receive from our sense (Taste, Touch, Smell..etc)
Episodic Memories: Relates to events that are personal (couples have their song that might remind them of their wedding or first date)
What are some retrieval biases
Salience, Congruity/Associative Effects, Motivation
. What is motivation and how is it relevant to marketing?
• Motivation is an inner state of aroused energy directed toward achieving a goal.
• It occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy.
• Motivation is described in terms of strength and direction.
• Marketers want to make it easy for consumers to make a positive decision toward their products
• We want to increase motivation for consumers to purchase our products (Brand loyalty)
Types of motivation Conflicts
1. Approach- Approach
2. Approach- Avoidance
3. Avoidance- Avoidance
Based on the premise that people have a basic need for order and consistency
What is consumer Involvement
A person's perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs, values, and interests
How does consumer involvement relate to motivation
• We can view involvement as a motivation to process information, pay attention, exert cognitive effort.
• At the low end of involvement: Inertia • Decisions made out of habit
• At the high end of involvement: Intensity • Products carry a great deal of meaning
A belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite
Means-end chain model
assumes that people link specific product attributes (indirectly) to terminal values such as freedom or safety
The three hierarchies of attitudes
internalization, Identification, Compliance
ABC Model of Attitudes
Attitudes consist of three components affect (feelings and emotions), behavior (actions), and cognition (thoughts and beliefs)
What are some obstacles to predicting behavior even if we know a person's attitudes?
- "Do as I say, not as I do"
- Studies have found a low correlation between a persons reported attitude toward something and actual behavior towards it.
- Some researchers are skeptical that there is absolutely no correlation between the two. Hence the phrase "the road to hell is paved with good intentions"
Steps in the model of rational decision-making.
1. Problem recognition
2. Information search
3. Evaluation of alternatives
4. Product choice
5. Learning occurs/ influences likeliness we will purchase again
A description model of how people make their choices
The mental rules of thumb that lead to a speedy decision
The processes whereby purchase decisions are made out of habit because the consumer lacks the motivation to consider alternatives
Repeat purchasing behavior that reflects a conscious decision to continue buying the same brand
Decision shortcuts a consumer makes when a product with a low standing on one attribute cannot make up for this position by being better on another attribute
A set of rules that allows information about attributes of competing products to be averaged in some way; poor standing on one attribute can potentially be offset by good standing on another
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