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COMBINATION: PSYCH EXAM 4 TOTAL REVIEW
Terms in this set (256)
The area of psychology that focuses on how people think about other people, interact in relationships and groups, and are affected by their relationships with others.
Humans have a biological need governed by a biological instinct for relationships with people.
Internal (Dispositional) Attribution
Explains a person's behavior in terms of that person's preferences, beliefs, goals, or other qualities and characteristics.
"I did a good job because I'm smart"
External (Situational) Attribution
Individuals infer that behavior is due to situational factors.
"I did a good job because the test was easy"
Cognitive shortcut to making contributions.
Fundamental Attribution Error
strong tendency bias to attribute internal causes for other people's behavior, even when the behavior can be completely explained by the situation (most common & frequent to error)
-Also called correspondence bias
-Something we make about others, not ourselves
Attribute external causes for your own failings & internal factors to successes. --(opposite when considering others)
Belief in a just world
People get what they deserve. (good things happen to good people; bad things happen to bad people)
-maintains discriminatory behavior
Something we make about others, not ourselves.
is an overall evaluation (usually positive or negative) about some aspect of the world, such as people, issues, situations, or objects. --Affects information processing and memory.
3 Components (ABC):
Behavioral, Cognitive, Affective
One's predisposition to act in a particular way toward the object or topic. When people are asked repeatedly to assert an attitude on a given topic, it primes that attitude and makes it easier to access (result: consistency & extremity)
What you believe or know about the object or topic. Why people in the same social situation may later report different versions of what occurred.
One's feelings about the object or topic.
Relationship between attitude and behavior
Repeated assertion of an attitude leads to behavior more consistent with it and makes the attitude more extreme.
an uncomfortable state that occurs when one's attitudes/beliefs and behaviors are inconsistent. When attitudes and behaviors are inconsistent, then dissonance theory predicts we will be unconsciously motivated to alter one in order to be consistent, typically the attitude.
Why does cognitive dissonance change attitude?
Because behaviors are harder to change and cannot be taken back, so attitude is more likely to change instead.
*know Festinger's classic study
In a classic study on cognitive dissonance by Festinger,..
participants who were paid less to tell someone that a boring task was really enjoyable later said that they enjoyed the task more than those who were paid a much greater amount. Participants in the low pay condition could not justify reporting that they enjoyed the task. Thus, to reduce dissonance, they convinced themselves unconsciously that they really did enjoy the task. Participants who were paid more felt no such compulsion and there was no dissonance to be resolved.
Efforts to change people's attitudes in response to information one provides.
Central Route to persuasion
Involves decisions based on the content and facts of the message.
-Typically this involves appeals to logic and reason.
-The person considers persuasive arguments carefully and thoughtfully.
Peripheral Route to persuasion
Involves decisions based on the attractiveness and expertise of the source; the number of arguments exposed to (but NOT the strength or quality of the arguments- e.g., a politician with a bigger campaign budget can afford more commercial time); and information about how other people respond to the message (e.g., "people love this product", "1 in 3 doctors recommend this")
-takes advantage of the mere exposure effect
Elaboration Likelihood Model
A model that predicts responses to attempts at persuasion by distinguishing between the different routes to persuasion.
Mere Exposure Effect
Refers to how simply becoming familiar with something or someone can change your attitude toward it.
generally to a more favorable view). The person is responding to non-message cues.
Characteristics of Persuasive People
Identity or attractiveness
Messages work when arousing strong emotions
A belief or set of beliefs about people from a particular group or social category
not always negative.
Cognitive errors of stereotypes
-Likely to forget/ignore information not consistent with stereotypes.
-Deny information inconsistent with stereotypes.
An attitude or prejudgment toward members of a group.
Primary Theories of Prejudice Development
Realistic Conflict Theory
Suggests that competition for scarce resources, such as good housing, jobs, and schools is a reason why prejudice arises.
Prejudice eliminated through cooperation toward larger goals.
Robber's Cave Study
A set of 11-year-old boys was divided into two groups at an overnight camp. The two groups competed for valued prizes over a period of time. Competition led to conflict and quickly escalated into prejudice and discrimination. These effects ended when the two groups no longer competed but cooperated for larger, mutually beneficial goals.
Tied to realistic conflict theory.
Social Categorization Theory
Ingroup vs. Outgroup
i.e. people in Razorback attire vs. people in Longhorn attire
Social Learning Theory
Prejudice transmitted through culture
Grew up learning this
A behavior toward members of a group based on prejudice.
Generally negative or unfair.
How are prejudice and stereotypes related?
Prejudice towards a group of people due to a negative set of beliefs about them.
Primary Ways of Changing/Decreasing Prejudice
Contact between different groups will decrease prejudice.
Increases awareness of similarities.
Realize information is inconsistent with stereotypes
Challenges view of outgroup homogeneity.
Shifts the categories of "us" and "them" to where they are no longer distinct entities.
Makes outgroup part of in-group and vis versa.
Increases contact between individuals from different "groups" and creating new, integrated groups that require mutual interdependence to achieve a superordinate goal.
Integrated groups of five or six students are formed and given an assignment. Each member of the group researches a different aspect of the project. The members from each group researching the aspect of the topic then form a new, expert group. The expert groups meet to share information and rehearse presentations. The expert groups disband, and each member then writes a report. The members read that report to the original jigsaw groups. This way each group member is perceived as an expert.
Intense, often sudden feeling of being "in love."
Involves sexual attraction, a desire for mutual love and physical closeness, arousal, and a fear that the relationship will end.
Highly valued in Western culture for marriage.
Marked by very close friendship, mutual caring, liking, respect, and attraction. More valued in Eastern (collectivistic) culture for marriage (why we see many more "arranged" marriages in these cultures).
Triangular Model of Love
Theory that says there are three dimensions of love: passion, including sexual desire; intimacy, including emotional closeness and sharing; and commitment, including the conscious decision to be in the relationship.
Most types of love relationships involve two of three components.
Relationships rarely last with just one. Only "consummate love" has all three- scientific version of "soul mates".
Attachment Styles in relationships
The attachment style shown with a partner stems from the interaction pattern developed between parent and child
Secure, avoidant, anxious-ambivalent
Evolutionary theory of mating preferences
Men: physical attributes that signal fertility and health (well-proportioned body and symmetrical features) Physical attractiveness.
Women: Mates able to protect and nourish them and their children. Wealth and power.
As women gain economic power, their preference in mates becomes more similar to men's preference (physical attractiveness)
As cultural ideals change, preferences in mates change. Due to culture's idea of "attractiveness"
Ending Romantic Relationships
Ratio of positive to negative interactions
When an individual determines the costs to outweigh the benefits in a relationship.
Physical Cheating: Men are less capable of handling this; main contributor to the end of relationships.
Main cause of men being physically violent
Emotional Cheating: Women less able to handle
Main cause of women being emotionally and relationally violent.
Enforcement through sanctions
Rules all group members know/tend to abide by.
i.e. raising hand to ask questions
Expected behavior based on position within group.
Change in behavior in order to follow a group's norms.
Solomon Asch Study
Know Details of Study
Solomon Asch- Holocaust survivor
Explain Asch's "The lines' experiment (1951)
In 1951 Solomon Asch conducted a study in were he measured the number of times a person conformed to the majority view.The participants were deceived into taking part in a study on visual perception. The participants were mixed in with researchers ( unknown to them) and given the task to determine which line (out of the 3 possibilities) was the same length as the target line.The researches decided prior to the experiment that they would pick the wrong answer , in order to see if the participant(s) would conform , even though the answer was obvious. The results showed that about one third (32%) of the participants who were placed in this situation went along and conformed.Over the 12 critical trials about 75% of participants conformed at least once and 25% of participant never conformed.
Person/individual who disagrees/says no
Compliance with an order from an authority figure (the tendency to do what authorities tell us to do simply because they tell us to do it)
Stanley Milgram Shock Studies
65% of white christian males administered maximum shock.
Know a lot of shit ab this study honestly
What does Milgram use to back social psychology?
Milgram experiment tried to explain how the Holocaust could have happened, in terms of the social dynamics that led good people to become murderers
How did Milgram set up his test to assess social psychology?
Setup: Subjects were told by the experimenter that they had to give another subject increasing shock for incorrect responses, going up to levels of shock that could be lethal
What were the result?
Even when the study was not done at Yale (where Milgram worked), the experimenter was still seen as a legitimate authority, and therefore 65% of subjects administered the highest shock
What did Milgram's experiments suggest & what inspired his work?
Milgram's experiment suggested that people need to support each other in resisting immoral authorities
-Solomon Asch's experiments (was a student of his)
Sometimes being a part of a group or in the presence of others can increase performance.
Freeloading- Work harder when you're the only one
The loss of the sense of self that occurs when people immersed in a group literally become anonymous—their identities are unknown to others in the group.
Mob mentality- lose sense of morality
Opinions of people become more extreme after group discussion.
Emotional tight-knit groups make decisions that ignore evidence/fact and do what goes in favor of the group.
Lack of critical analysis.
Motivation to increase another person's welfare without expectation of personal gain.
Acting altruistically to benefit others
Characteristics of the helper in prosocial behavior
High need for approval, predisposition to feeling personal and social responsibility, empathic concern for others or are generally high on the personality dimension agreeableness, sense of empathy, belief in a just world, internal locus of control, and are less concerned for their own welfare.
Characteristics of those being helped in prosocial behavior
People are more likely to help others they view as similar to themselves, are friends with or like, and believe are not responsible for their predicaments or who give a socially acceptable justification
Characteristics of the situation in prosocial behavior
More likely to help when the cost of helping seems relatively low, when the "rewards" of helping are relatively high, and when there appears to be an increased cost of not helping (such as a heightened sense of shame and guilt).
Refers to the decrease in offers of assistance that occurs as the number of bystanders increases.
Murder of Kitty Genovese
Diffusion of Responsibility
The diminished sense of responsibility to help that each person feels as the number of bystanders grows.
Be familiar with the ethical concerns of social psychological research discussed in lecture. How does deception relate to psychological harm? What limitations are placed on current studies involving deception? (some key pts)(3)
-Some psychological phenomena are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to study if the participant knows the true nature of the experiment.
-Deception always runs the risk of distress, but the intensity of the risk and of the distress level can be managed in an ethical way.
-Deception is permitted now only if it is crystal clear that the participants will not be harmed and that important knowledge will be gained from the study.
Several issues should be kept in mind regarding deception in psychology...
Many of the pioneering researchers did not expect to cause psychological distress or harm. For example, Milgram did not initially expect participants to be willing to shock learners at the highest "voltage" levels, so he was not prepared to address issues involving the realization that "I just killed someone". Zimbardo did not expect healthy well-adjusted college students to become violent toward one another in a known experiment on roles.
At present, to receive approval for a study that uses deception, researchers must show that the following conditions are met...
The deception is absolutely necessary and the findings could not be ascertained without deception.
The information is valuable.
The deception is minimal.
At the conclusion of the study, the investigators fully explain to the participants the true nature of the research.
Define social psychology
How people think about other people, interact in relationships and groups, and are affected by their relationship with others.
Why are humans "ultrasocial"
We depend on social interaction for health and survival.
inferences about the causes of events, own and others behaviours
"I did a good job because I'm smart"
"I did a good job because the task was easy"
fundamental attribution error?
Automatically blame them for their circumstances. Bias to attribute internal causes for other people's behavior.
What is a belief in a just world mean?
People get what they deserve. Example: prisoners getting raped
self serving bias?
Self-serving causes to our successes, external for our failures. Attribute external causes for your own feelings.
overall evaluation about some aspect of the world; Positive or negative evaluative reactions (ABCs) towards an object or person. Efficient way to make decisions and to size up the world.
What are the ABCs of evaluative reactions to person/object?
Every attitude we hold has three components: ABC model of attitudes:
A for affective (emotionally based reaction)
B for behavioral (based reaction)
C for cognitive (based reaction)
Any particular attitude can be based on one component more than another.
the affective component of attitude
one's feelings about the object or topic
the behavioral component of attitude
one's tendency to act in a particular way toward the object or topic
cognitive component of attitude
what you believe or know about the object or topic
conflict of attitude and behavior
Fessinger's experiment on cognitive dissonance
participants were paid less to tell someone that a boring task was really enjoyable later said that they enjoyed the task more than those who were paid a much greater amount.
efforts to change people's attitudes in response to information one provides
elaboration likelihood model (ELM)
a model that predicts responses to attempts at persuasion by distinguishing between different routes to persuasion.
the central route of persuasion
decisions based on the content of the message. logic & reason.
the peripheral route of persuasion
decisions based on the attractiveness and expertise of the source. About the # of arguments exposed to, not the quality.
the mere exposure effect
How simply becoming familiar with something or someone can change your attitude towards it
negative ATTITUDE or prejudgement toward members of a group
negative/unfair BEHAVIOR toward individuals from a specific group because of unjustified negative attitudes about that group
Creation of categories of people. In-group and out-group.
social learning theory?
Learning through the observation of others. Prejudice transmitted through culture.
The increase awareness of similarities, finding out the group are like the ingroup. Information inconsistent with stereotype.
people usually think of their own group favorably
is usually disliked and assumed to possess more undesirable traits.
Recategorizing people if you find similarities with them.
what kind of people can not re-catagorize?
People that view other groups as sub-human
working together with another group to reach a common goal.
importance of physical attraction?
Most important thing at the beginning of a relationship
The more you are exposed to someone, the more you like them
What is the importance of similarity in a relationship
provides the MOST success in the long run. Attitudes, backgrounds, beliefs, age, etc.
What is passionate love?
Like a drug. Physical, intense, sexual attraction
What is companionate love?
Triangular model of love
theory that says there are three dimensions of love: passion, intimacy, and commitment
secure style of attachment
Adults who seek closeness and interdependence in relationships and are not worried about the possibility of the loss of the relationship
avoiding style of attachment
Adults who are uncomfortable with intimacy and closeness
Adults who simultaneously fear and want a relationship
What is inequity in a relationship?
Positive interactions outweigh negative 5:1. If too much negative, they will break up.
What is the difference in infidelity between men and women?
Men become unfaithful just for physical reasons. Women become unfaithful because of an emotional breakdown in relationship.
What is the difference between men and women with jealousy?
Men become jealous of physical infidelity. Women become jealous from emotional infidelity, if he has a girl best friend.
2+ people with interaction and emotional connection
basic rules by how a group should act, just understood. Social norms affect how we are with people vs. how we are alone.
Written down or not, each person in a group is associated with a role. Quarterback, jokester, leader, etc.
Change in behavior in order to follow a group's norms. Comply with things they know are wrong.
solomon asch study?
Line test. 75% chance you will give the wrong answer because you conform.
What is a dissenter?
One who disagrees. Conformity will decease with a dissenter.
Complying with the direct command of someone in a group.
Stanley Milgram's shock study?
2 people, teacher and learner. Told them to shock them if they were wrong. test the hypothesis that Americans would not follow orders to inflict pain on others.
in stanley milgrams shock study What % of people administered maximum shock?
Change in performance with an audience.
Change in productivity in a group.
deindividuation and mob behavior?
Member among emotionally-aroused individuals. Likelihood of doing morally wrong is high. Lose sense of self, riots.
Group decisions are different than what the individual would decide. Often with juries in jury trials.
Lack of critical analysis among close group members. Leads to harm, injury, or death.
Helping someone without expecting anything in return
you're more likely to get help if there are a handful of people as opposed to a lot of people
the bystander effect?
decrease of offers in assistance as there is an increase in bystanders
diffusion of responsibility?
diminished sense of responsibility to help as # of bystanders grows
psychological (mental) disorder?
Mental condition characterized by symptoms that create significant distress, impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living, or lead to risk or harm
What is the approximate lifetime prevalence for a mental disorder?
What are the 3 D's of mental disorder?
distress, disability, danger
What is distress & an example?
Symptoms of mental illness cause emotional upheaval.
Example: out of control negative emotions. Sadness, anger, fear.
What is disability and an example?
Symptoms of mental illness impairs ability to function normally.
Example: damaged relationships, can't perform well in school, lose your job.
What is danger and an example?
Danger of violence towards other people & danger of violence towards self. Example is suicide.
the medical model?
Conceptualization of psychology abnormalities as diseases that have symptoms and causes and possible cures.
scientific labels that describe symptoms
causation and development of mental illness.
How someone will develop with treatment/without treatment.
What is the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders)
Textbook/guide used for mental illness
Presence of more than one disorder. Increases diagnostic difficulty.
What % of people never seek treatment and why?
People will act differently towards them, is seen as evil, embarrassment and shame
the diathesis-stress model?
biological predisposition to the disorder and specific environmental factors that combine to trigger the disorder.
Reaction to immediate threat or danger. Identifiable threat, physical reaction.
Worry about something that might happen in the future. Not currently identifiable. Cognitive reaction.
generalized anxiety disorder?
Anxiety-based, worrying disorder. NOT fearful. Worry about everything in all aspects of life, don't get a lot of sleep. 1/20 college students.
specific focus of fear. Panicked in the presence of something you fear.
Fear of going out in public. Linked to panic disorder - afraid of having panic attacks in public.
social anxiety disorder?
Fear of social interaction with other human beings.
Overwhelming attack of fear that occurs for no reason in a panic disorder.
Excessive, unwanted repetitive obsessions/thoughts. Compulsions and behaviors occur.
What is an obsession?
Recurrent and persistent THOUGHT, impulse, or image that feels intrusive
What is a compulsion?
repetitive BEHAVIOUR or mental act a person feels compelled to perform in response to an obsesion
What is the etiology of OCD?
disorder from being exposed to life-threatening traumatic event and feeling helpless. Nightmares & flashbacks.
What does classical conditioning have to do with PTSD?
sounds of bullets sound like 4th of july, things are associated with trauma.
Disorders of emotion
major depressive disorder?
depressed mood or loss of interest in nearly all activities.
What are the statistics of depression in the US?
10th leading cause of death, 2nd for people age 18-30
Cycling of two polar extremes over long periods of time.
the etiology of bipolar disorder?
STRONGEST GENETIC COMPONENT OF ALL MENTAL ILLNESS. 80-90% genetic.
the etiology of mood disorders?
hereditary factors. Genetic and enviornmental.
What neurotransmitter is affected in mood disorders
raised not allowed to become independent, kids who are abused. LEarn there is nothing you can do to change your circumstances, tend to get depression.
Amnesia, identity disorder, depresonalization-derealization disorder. People have traumatic events.
somatic symptom disorders?
have focus on physical symptoms - like pain - to the point that it causes major emotional distress and problems functioning.
Disorder of thought, lose contact with reality.
positive symptoms in schizophrenia?
Symptoms that only people with schizophrenia have. Hallucinations & delusions.
false perception of something that is not there
belief that can't possibly be real. Ex. you are an orange.
Absence of normal behavior. Bathing, talking, hygiene, cooking meat, etc.
What are the etiological factors for schizophrenia?
brain ventricle sizes are much larger than normal, have abnormality with dopamine.
antisocial personality disorder?
pathological disregard for others
what causes antisocial personality disorder
the amygdala is underactive
borderline personality disorder?
instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion
Legal concept that a person cannot be held responsible for his/her actions BECAUSE OF MENTAL ILLNESS
A mental condition characterized by symptoms that create significant distress, impair work, school, family, relationships, or daily living; or lead to significant risk or harm.
Lifetime Prevalence: 45-50% chance that you'll develop a mental disorder in your lifetime
Current Prevalence: 25% experience diagnosable symptoms currently.
Suicide is 2nd highest cause of death in college students.
Unpleasant emotions/feelings that affect your level of functioning.
Ex. Someone who bursts into tears for no apparent reason; not always observable to others.
Ex. Someone who becomes so anxious that they cannot perform their job.
Danger/Risk of Harm
Can occur when symptoms of a disorder cause an individual to put his or her or someone else's life at risk, purposely, or accidentally (i.e. suicide or attacking other people)
Historical myths/misassumptions about symptoms of mental illness
Mentally ill people are generally not violent.
96% of violent crime comes from people with no mental background.
90% of suicides are from untreated mental health problems. (only 1/50 follow through with the attempt)
The idea that mental disorders have symptoms and causes and possible treatment.
A means of distinguishing one disorder from another. (given a label)
Each diagnosis comes with a set of symptoms
Refers to the cause or history of illness.
Forecast about the probable course of the illness.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM)
A classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems.
The co-occurance of two or more disorders in a single individual. (depressed people may go to drugs/alcohol and become addicted)
Why do 70% of people with disorders never seek treatment?
In part because of ignorance or they believe it makes them look weak.
The stigma of mental illness keeps them from telling someone.
(be familiar with David Rosenhan's social experiment)
did study in which healthy patients were admitted to psychiatric hospitals and diagnoses with schizophrenia; showed that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, the label, even when behavior indicates otherwise, is hard to overcome in a mental health setting
Examines biological, psychological, and social factors affecting an individual, to examine how and why disorders occur.
States that for a given disorder, there is both a biological predisposition to the disorder (a diathesis) and specific environmental factors (stress) that combine to trigger the disorder.
Mal de Ojo
Characterized by intense or pervasive fear (a response to an external stimulus) or anxiety (a vague but persistent sense of foreboding or dread), or extreme attempts to avoid these feelings.
Have to do with worry, fear, or both.
Generalized anxiety disorder
Involves excessive anxiety and worry that is not consistently related to a specific object or situation.
Individuals worry about everything, don't focus well, don't work well, etc.
Irrational fear of an object, activity, or situation.
Social Anxiety Disorder
Fear of social interaction and contact.
Classical and operant conditioning's role in developing a phobia
Observational learning from the behavior of other people who fear particular objects or situations can lead to the development of a phobia by indicating what should be feared.
Evolutionary component of phobias
Phobias have a genetic component and often run in families. Humans seem biologically prepared to develop phobias about certain stimuli and not others.
Feels like a heart attack, totally unexpected, life-altering. Some people have them for no reason.
When people have random panic attacks. Can develop into agoraphobia.
Fear of public places
Chemical messengers in the brain that play a role in wakefulness and vigilance.
Disturbances involving these orexins may lead to panic attacks.
Fear of sensations or behaviors that occur due to anxiety
People w this disorder are at higher risk of experiencing spontaneous panic attacks.
Unwanted repetitive thoughts
Unwanted repetitive behaviors.
Presence of obsessions alone or combined with compulsions.
Strong genetic component (runs in family)
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
An anxiety-related disorder that occurs as a consequence of a traumatic event such as war, physical or sexual abuse, terrorism, or natural disasters.
Caused through classical conditioning.
PTSD diagnosis is made when 3 conditions are met:
- The person experiences an event that involves serious injury or death.
- The traumatized person responds to the situation with fear and helplessness.
- The traumatized person experiences 3 types of symptoms (do not always appear immediately after the event)
1. persistent re-experience of the event (reliving memories of event)
2. persistent avoidance of anything associated (avoiding people and events that re
3. heightened arousal (startle easily)
Conditions marked by persistent or episodic disturbances in emotion that interfere with normal functioning in at least one realm of life.
They are "polar" in nature- either on the extremely low end of emotional spectrum (e.g., depression) or on the extremely high end of emotional spectrum (e.g., mania)
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
Characterized by at least two weeks of depressed mood or loss of interest in nearly all activities, along with at least five symptoms of depression
Symptoms of MDD
Loss of pleasure in normal activities- called anhedonia, sleep or eating disturbances, loss of energy, restlessness or sluggishness, feelings of worthlessness and guilt, thoughts of suicide.
Cultural Variation of MDD
Latin and Mediterranean cultures who are depressed complain of headache and fatigue. In Asian cultures, people with major depression are likely to report weakness, tiredness, or a sense of "imbalance" or other bodily symptoms.
Suicide risks related to major depression
Many suicide attempts are motivated by the sense of hopelessness that is often a part of depression.
More than 34,000 depressed people commit suicide every year in the US.
Misconceptions/Myths about suicide
If you talk about suicide, you won't really do it. People who attempt suicide are "crazy." Someone who is determined to commit suicide can't be stopped. People who commit suicide weren't willing to seek help. Talking about suicide could give someone the idea, so you shouldn't talk or ask about it. (NONE OF THESE ARE TRUE)
Mood disorder marked by one or more episodes of mania, or the less intense hypomania, often alternating between periods of depression.
Also called Manic-Depressive Disorder
A period of at least a week during which an abnormally elevated, expansive, or irritable mood persists.
Manic and Depressed phases
Manic phase often followed by depressed phase.
Manic- mood state characterized by period of at least one week where an elevated, expansive or unusually irritable mood exists.
Depressive- Period of depressed mood
The cycling of the mood usually takes place over a number of years, although some people may experience rapid cycling with four or more mood shifts in a year.
General etiological (causal) factors for mood disorders
Genetics (especially for bipolar), neurotransmitters, cognitive distortions, negative triad of depression, attributional style, learned helplessness, environmental stress, social isolation and rejection
Systematic errors in thinking about events and people, including the self
Negative triad of depression
Negative view of the world (everybody hates me), self (I'm worthless), and future (things will never get better).
Cognitive distortions lead to the triad.
A person's characteristic way of explaining life events.
Affects one's risk of developing depression.
A state in which consequences of behavior appear to be random or uncontrolled, leading to feelings of helplessness and a tendency to "give up" and become depressed.
Disruptions in a person's identity, memory, or consciousness.
Somatic Symptom Disorders
Physical symptoms that don't have an underlying medical cause.
An obvious impairment in the ability to perceive and comprehend events accurately, combined with a gross disorganization of behavior.
A psychotic disorder that profoundly alters affect, behavior, and cognition, particularly the pattern or form of thought.
Form of psychosis
Dissociative identity disorder
Characterized by the presence within an individual of two or more distinct identities that at different times take control of the individual's behavior.
Not a form of psychosis
Positive Symptoms of Schiz
Involve an excess or distortion of normal functions. Called positive bc they mark the presence of unusual behaviors, not bc they are desirable.
Delusions, hallucinations, disordered behavior, disorganized speech.
Entrenched and unshakable false beliefs that are often bizarre.
Mental images in any sensory modality (mostly visual/auditory) that are so vivid they seem real. False perceptions
Behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances.
Severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently from one to another unrelated topic.
Negative symptoms of Schiz
Involve a diminution or loss of normal functions.
Flat affect, allege, avolition
General failure to express or respond to emotion.
"Poverty of speech"
Brief, slow, empty replies to questions.
Inability to initiate goal-directed behavior. Apparent complete lack of motivation.
Perspectives of Schizophrenia
Biological, psychological, social perspectives
General Etiological (Casual) Factors for Schizophrenia
Genetics, brain, ventricle size differences and neural degeneration, prenatal explanations, dopamine differences, perceptual/interpretational problems, stress as a trigger, high expressed emotion.
High expressed emotion
An emotional style in which family members are critical, hostile, and over-involved.
Involve severe disturbances in eating behavior; individuals are preoccupied with food.
A potentially fatal eating disorder characterized by the refusal to maintain even a low normal weight along with intense fear of gaining weight.
Body Image distortion- anorexic individuals often "know" they're underweight but still "see" fat that isn't there/overestimate their body size.
An eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by some attempt to prevent weight gain (purging or exercise).
Individuals are typically normal weight or even slightly overweight.
Cultural Influences on the development of eating disorders
America rewards thin and punishes fat. Culture promotes the idea that body shape can be changed. Eating disorders do not exist in non-westernized cultures.
A set of relatively stable personality traits that are inflexible and maladaptive, causing distress or difficulty with daily functioning in school, work, social life, or relationships.
Antisocial personality disorder
A long-standing pattern of disregard for others to the point of violating their rights.
Often called "psychopaths"
Participates in recognition of fear and other negative emotions in others. Involved in learning through fear. Under-active in individuals with antisocial personality disorder. These individuals do not learn from punishment.
Risk factors for antisocial personality disorder
Occurs 3x more frequently in men than women. Runs strongly in family lines, even if child is adopted.
The genetic inheritance likely involves an under-responsive nervous system with some brain abnormalities involving the amygdala.
Being raised in antisocial family and social environments. Children who witnessed abuse or lack of concern for others in their environment growing up are more likely to develop these traits.
Borderline personality disorder
Characterized by instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion. Borderline between anxiety & psychosis.
Immensely occupied with abandonment.
A legal concept indicating that a person cannot be held responsible for his or her actions because of mental illness- not a diagnosis; not a mental illness.
How does public perception of the insanity defense and its outcome differ from reality? How does public perception of the insanity defense and its outcome differ from reality?
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