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Chapters one and two

Dr. Zahn's academic interest is analyzing various aspects of society and publishing his findings in sociological journals. In view of this, Dr. Zahn is considered to be a(n) _______ sociologist.
A. Applied
B. Basic
C. Practical
D. Reform

B. Basic

Sociologists who analyze how social life depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are most likely ______.
A. Ethnoethodologists
B. Functionalists
C. Conflict theorists
D. Symbolic interactionists

D. Symbolic interactionists

Conflict theorists would contend that changes in ______ explain the high divorce rates in the United States.
A. The functions of the family
B. Our culture's beliefs about marriage
C. The male-female power relationship
D. Our attitudes about commitment

D. Our attitudes about commitment

Harry is in the campus dining hall and has chosen a cheeseburger and fries rather than a veggie burger. John, a fraternity playboy, claims he has only dated the most beautiful women on campus. Larry considers earning an "A" in a course far superior than a "B" or a "C." What do Harry, John, and Larry have in common?
A. They are practicing ethnocentrism in their decision making.
B. They are employing the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
C. They are expressing their own values in the choices they make.
D. They are all experiencing culture shock.

C. They are expressing their own values in the choices they make.

stresses the social contexts in which people live and examines how these contexts influence people's lives

sociological perspective

the corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society

social location

a group of people who share a culture and a territory


using objective, systematic observations to test theories

scientific method

the way we have become used to our lives


the boundaries we live in


centers of sociology

how groups influence people and how people are influenced by their society

sociology grew out of ______


suggested that we apply the scientific method to the social world, a process known as positivism

Auguste Comte

coined the term "Sociology" and was known for "Armchair Philosophy"

Auguste Comte

second founder of sociology

Herbert Spencer

this sociologist's idea is known as social darwinism, which proposed that societies evolve over time as the fittest adapt to their environment

Herbert Spencer

believed that the engine of human history is class conflict

Karl Marx

said that society is made up of two social classes and they are natural enemies: bourgeoisie (the capitalists, who own the capital, land, factories, and machines) and the proletariat (the exploited workers)

Karl Marx

first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard in our country and also received a B.A. from Fisk University

W.E.B. Dubois

founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

W.E.B. Dubois

Published a book each year from 1896-1914

W.E.B. Dubois

first woman to hold cabinet position

Frances Perkins

only sociologist to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1931

Jane Addams

Co-Founded Hull House (1889) and American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)

Jane Addams

fought for 8 hour work day for people and effort to bring about laws against child labor

Jane Addams

found that capitalism was more likely to flourish in Protestant countries

Max Weber

concluded that religion was the key factor in the rise of capitalism

Max Weber

the degree to which people are tied to their social group

social integration

decided that suicide was not a random act but its social factors that determine a person's actions

Emile Durkheim

Got sociology recognized as Separate Discipline

Emile Durkheim

translated Auguste Comte's ideas from French to English

Harriet Martineau

Published Society in America before Durkheim and Weber were born

Harriet Martineau

developed Objective Analysis and Models of Society

Talcott Parsons

1. Symbolic Interactionism
2. Functional Analysis
3. Conflict Theory

Theoretical Perspectives of Sociology

those things to which we attach meaning to


Society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together


help keep the group in balance


the harmful consequences of people's actions


focus on how the male-female power balance has changed

conflict theorists

a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work


idea that society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together

functional analysis

founder of conflict theory

Karl Marx

stress that society is composed of groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources

conflict theorists

Sociological inquiry conducted with the objective of gaining a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena

Basic sociology

intervention using sociological knowledge in an applied setting

Applied sociology

An action that is intended to help some part of a system

Manifest Function

An action that has unintended consequences that help a system adjust

Latent Function

a statement of what we expect to find based on predictions from a theory


goal of scientific research

that someone else will redo it

argued that if theory isn't connected to research, it is abstract and empty

C. Wright Mills

Max Weber used what kind of research?

social research

behavior passed from one generation to another; language, beliefs, values, norms


Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations

cultural lag

the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life

culture shock

a tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as a yardstick for judging others


Language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world


Rather than objects and events forcing themselves into our consciousness, it is our language that determines our consciousness, and hence our perception of objects and events


symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thoughts


a person's, or culture's, ideas of what is desirable in life


the reactions people receive for following or breaking norms


Norms that are not strictly enforced


a norm so strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion


a world within the larger world of the dominant culture


a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture


a society made up of many different groups

pluralistic society

the values that are central to a group, those around which it builds a common identity

core values

values that together form a larger whole

value cluster

values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other

value contradiction

a people's ideal values and norms; the goals held out for them

ideal culture

the norms and values that people actually follow

real culture

in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools


the emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life

new technology

the spread of cultural traits from one group to another; includes both material and nonmaterial cultural traits

cultural diffusion

the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations

cultural leveling

Values in U.S. Society (6)

Democracy, Equality, Group Superiority, Education, Religiosity, Romantic Love

Values in U.S. Society (7)

Achievement and Success, Individualism, Hard Work, Efficiency and Practicality, Science and Technology, Material Comfort, Freedom

the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry

material culture

a group's way of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)

nonmaterial culture

Emerging Values (5)

Leisure, Self-fulfillment, Physical Fitness, Youthfulness, Concern for the Environment

a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material reward

positive sanction

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