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80 terms

Intro Sociology Exam 1

Chapters one and two
STUDY
PLAY
Dr. Zahn's academic interest is analyzing various aspects of society and publishing his findings in sociological journals. In view of this, Dr. Zahn is considered to be a(n) _______ sociologist.
A. Applied
B. Basic
C. Practical
D. Reform
B. Basic
Sociologists who analyze how social life depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are most likely ______.
A. Ethnoethodologists
B. Functionalists
C. Conflict theorists
D. Symbolic interactionists
D. Symbolic interactionists
Conflict theorists would contend that changes in ______ explain the high divorce rates in the United States.
A. The functions of the family
B. Our culture's beliefs about marriage
C. The male-female power relationship
D. Our attitudes about commitment
D. Our attitudes about commitment
Harry is in the campus dining hall and has chosen a cheeseburger and fries rather than a veggie burger. John, a fraternity playboy, claims he has only dated the most beautiful women on campus. Larry considers earning an "A" in a course far superior than a "B" or a "C." What do Harry, John, and Larry have in common?
A. They are practicing ethnocentrism in their decision making.
B. They are employing the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.
C. They are expressing their own values in the choices they make.
D. They are all experiencing culture shock.
C. They are expressing their own values in the choices they make.
stresses the social contexts in which people live and examines how these contexts influence people's lives
sociological perspective
the corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society
social location
a group of people who share a culture and a territory
society
using objective, systematic observations to test theories
scientific method
the way we have become used to our lives
culture
the boundaries we live in
territory
centers of sociology
how groups influence people and how people are influenced by their society
sociology grew out of ______
upheaval
suggested that we apply the scientific method to the social world, a process known as positivism
Auguste Comte
coined the term "Sociology" and was known for "Armchair Philosophy"
Auguste Comte
second founder of sociology
Herbert Spencer
this sociologist's idea is known as social darwinism, which proposed that societies evolve over time as the fittest adapt to their environment
Herbert Spencer
believed that the engine of human history is class conflict
Karl Marx
said that society is made up of two social classes and they are natural enemies: bourgeoisie (the capitalists, who own the capital, land, factories, and machines) and the proletariat (the exploited workers)
Karl Marx
first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard in our country and also received a B.A. from Fisk University
W.E.B. Dubois
founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
W.E.B. Dubois
Published a book each year from 1896-1914
W.E.B. Dubois
first woman to hold cabinet position
Frances Perkins
only sociologist to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1931
Jane Addams
Co-Founded Hull House (1889) and American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
Jane Addams
fought for 8 hour work day for people and effort to bring about laws against child labor
Jane Addams
found that capitalism was more likely to flourish in Protestant countries
Max Weber
concluded that religion was the key factor in the rise of capitalism
Max Weber
the degree to which people are tied to their social group
social integration
decided that suicide was not a random act but its social factors that determine a person's actions
Emile Durkheim
Got sociology recognized as Separate Discipline
Emile Durkheim
translated Auguste Comte's ideas from French to English
Harriet Martineau
Published Society in America before Durkheim and Weber were born
Harriet Martineau
developed Objective Analysis and Models of Society
Talcott Parsons
1. Symbolic Interactionism
2. Functional Analysis
3. Conflict Theory
Theoretical Perspectives of Sociology
those things to which we attach meaning to
symbols
Society is a whole unit made up of interrelated parts that work together
Functionalism
help keep the group in balance
functions
the harmful consequences of people's actions
dysfunctions
focus on how the male-female power balance has changed
conflict theorists
a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work
theory
idea that society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together
functional analysis
founder of conflict theory
Karl Marx
stress that society is composed of groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources
conflict theorists
Sociological inquiry conducted with the objective of gaining a more profound knowledge of the fundamental aspects of social phenomena
Basic sociology
intervention using sociological knowledge in an applied setting
Applied sociology
An action that is intended to help some part of a system
Manifest Function
An action that has unintended consequences that help a system adjust
Latent Function
a statement of what we expect to find based on predictions from a theory
hypothesis
goal of scientific research
that someone else will redo it
argued that if theory isn't connected to research, it is abstract and empty
C. Wright Mills
Max Weber used what kind of research?
social research
behavior passed from one generation to another; language, beliefs, values, norms
culture
Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
cultural lag
the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life
culture shock
a tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as a yardstick for judging others
ethnocentrism
Language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world
Sapir-Whorf
Rather than objects and events forcing themselves into our consciousness, it is our language that determines our consciousness, and hence our perception of objects and events
Sapir-Whorf
symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thoughts
language
a person's, or culture's, ideas of what is desirable in life
values
the reactions people receive for following or breaking norms
sanctions
Norms that are not strictly enforced
folkways
a norm so strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion
taboo
a world within the larger world of the dominant culture
subculture
a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture
counterculture
a society made up of many different groups
pluralistic society
the values that are central to a group, those around which it builds a common identity
core values
values that together form a larger whole
value cluster
values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other
value contradiction
a people's ideal values and norms; the goals held out for them
ideal culture
the norms and values that people actually follow
real culture
in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools
technology
the emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life
new technology
the spread of cultural traits from one group to another; includes both material and nonmaterial cultural traits
cultural diffusion
the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations
cultural leveling
Values in U.S. Society (6)
Democracy, Equality, Group Superiority, Education, Religiosity, Romantic Love
Values in U.S. Society (7)
Achievement and Success, Individualism, Hard Work, Efficiency and Practicality, Science and Technology, Material Comfort, Freedom
the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry
material culture
a group's way of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)
nonmaterial culture
Emerging Values (5)
Leisure, Self-fulfillment, Physical Fitness, Youthfulness, Concern for the Environment
a reward or positive reaction for following norms, ranging from a smile to a material reward
positive sanction