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HISTORY _ ALL
Terms in this set (560)
1.How did Roger Williams gain notoriety in New England?
He challenged the religious leadership of Massachusetts's powerful men.
2.After having spent a great deal of time with Native Americans, Roger Williams believed
that Indian religion and culture was as good as that of the Puritans.
3.Which colony attracted dissenters through the protection of "Liberty of Conscience?"
4.New England Puritanism owed its religious roots to the
Protestant Reformation of the early sixteenth century.
5.How did King Henry VIII respond to the Protestant Reformation?
He made himself the head of the Church of England.
6.Which statement characterizes sixteenth-century English Puritanism?
Puritans wanted to rid the Church of England of many features of Catholicism.
7. What did English Puritans emphasize instead of Catholic rituals?
A personal relationship with God
8.How did the English monarchs James I and Charles I react to the ideas of Puritan reformers?
Both enforced conformity to the Church of England.
9.How did Puritans react when King Charles I dissolved Parliament in 1629?
they prepared to leave England because they had lost their political voice.
10.The Puritans, who described themselves as Separatists, believed that
the Church of England was corrupt beyond redemption.
11.Why was the charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company unique?
It allowed the government of the company to be located in the colony.
What was the goal of the Puritans who founded Massachusetts Bay colony?
To reform the Church of England
Who argued that the Puritans should be ìa city upon a hillî that would inspire the rest of the world?
Most Puritans who settled Massachusetts Bay colony were either farmers or
Unlike most other immigrant groups in American history, the migration to Puritan New England included
reat number of complete families.
According to the Puritan doctrine of predestination, how could one achieve salvation after death?
Puritans could do nothing to alter God's ruling on their fate.
Which statement characterizes Puritan communities in the first half of the seventeenth century?
A high degree of religious conformity
Why did Puritans keep churches out of the civil government of New England?
Puritans did not want to emulate the Church of England.
Why was the New England town meeting significant?
Its popular political participation was unprecedented during the seventeenth century.
Widespread political participation of males in New England town meetings led to
a reinforcement of community conformity.
How did Anne Hutchinson stir religious controversy in early Massachusetts?
Hutchinson preached that many of the colony's leaders affirmed the covenant of works.
How did the Boston church punish Anne Hutchinson?
Who left Massachusetts for Connecticut in 1636 after clashing with church leaders over the requirements for church membership?
What happened to Puritans in England during the mid-seventeenth century?
They ruled the nation from 1649 to 1660.
What was seventeenth-century New England's biggest export?
Which factor allowed New England's population continue to grow steadily during the seventeenth century?
The cold weather minimized the spread of life-threatening illnesses.
By the 1680s, New England's religious consensus had weakened to the point that
only 15 percent of adult males were church members in some towns.
What problem did the Halfway Covenant address?
Declining church membership
What did members of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, believe?
God spoke to each individual through an ìinner light.î
How did Puritans view Quakers?
As dangerous to the Puritan faith and social order
The majority of accused witches came from which segment of the population?
During most of the seventeenth century, New Netherland was
under the control of the Dutch.
Compared to the colonies to the north and south, the population of New Netherland was
34.What major change occurred in New Netherland in 1664?
New Netherland became New York.
Why did the English continue the Dutch policy of religious toleration in New York?
The diversity of the population prevented them from imposing a uniform religion.
The creation of New York led indirectly to the founding of
New Jersey and Pennsylvania.
What was William Penn's goal for his new colony?
To establish a genuinely Quaker colony in the Americas
Who served as leaders of Quaker congregations?
Ordinary men and women
Which factor contributed to Charles II's making William Penn the proprietor of a new colony?
Charles II hoped to rid England of Quakers.
The official Indian policy in seventeenth-century Pennsylvania
instructed agents to respect the land claims of nearby tribes.
What consequence did religious toleration in Quaker-dominated Pennsylvania have for colonists?
Colonists did not have to pay taxes to maintain a state-supported church
The Navigation Acts of the 1650s and 1660s were designed to regulate colonial trade in order to
yield revenues for the crown and English merchants.
What characterized colonial commerce by the end of the seventeenth century?
Strong ties to England because of royal supervision of merchants and shippers
Why did the Wampanoag Indians attack New England settlements in 1675?
New Englanders had been steadily encroaching on land the Indians needed to survive.
King Philip's War (1676) left New England settlers with
an enduring hatred of Indians.
In 1686, England created the Dominion of New England, a new government consolidation that
relocated part of Parliament to America to represent colonists more effectively.
In 1688, the Glorious Revolution in England influenced American colonists to
rise up against royal authority in the northern colonies.
James II was a zealous supporter of which religion?
What became the defining characteristic of Massachusetts citizenship after it became a royal colony in 1691?
What did King William's War, an attack by Great Lakes and Canadian French forces on villages in New England and New York, demonstrate to the American colonists?
English military protection from hostile neighbors was still valuable.
1.What happened to the Spanish colonial outposts in New Mexico and Florida?
D) They stagnated and primarily attracted religious missionaries.
Bacons rebellion erupted in 1676 as a dispute over indian policy and ended as a conflict between
B) the planter elite and small farmers.
How did the Indian leader Pope respond to Spanish exploitation and the work of Spanish missionaries in New Mexico in 1680?
B) Popé organized a violent revolt against the Spanish.
Why did Nathaniel Bacons demands distress the royal government and the elite planters of Virginia?
D) His plan transferred power to newcomers and small farmers.
How did the English of the Virginia Company differ from the Spanish colonists in the New World?
C) The English cared less about converting Indians to Christianity.
6.By the 1670s, the Chesapeake social structure was polarized along what lines?
7.Most indentured came from which class?
A) Poor men from England
8.Which profitable export crop depended on the expertise of slaves brought from West Africa to Carolina?
9.Why did the colonies shift from an indentured servant labor force to a slave labor force?
D) Slavery provided a perpetual labor force.
10.The majority of the original settlers who came to Jamestown and the Virginia colony were
A) gentlemen and their servants.
11.Seventeenth-century Chesapeake society was essentially a society of
C) servants and free workers.
12.Virginia tobacco farmers confronted what major obstacle in the 1600s?
A) Too few workers
13.What happened in Maryland, Lord Baltimore's planned refuge for Catholics?
Catholics feuded with the protestant majority
14.How had political equality in Virginia actually decreased by 1670?
B) Only male landowners and heads of households could vote.
15.How did indentured servitude differ between women and men?
B) Women servants could not marry.
16.Which factor contributed to the high mortality rate of the Englishmen who made the first voyage to what would become Jamestown, Virginia?
17.What was the only seventeenth-century English colony to be settled principally by colonists from other colonies rather than from England?
A servant labor system in the British colonies was made possible by the New World's labor shortage and
B) the decrease in job opportunities in England.
19.Planters preferred a slave labor system over a servant labor system because slaves
D) could be controlled politically.
20.Until the 1670s, almost all Chesapeake colonists were English; by 1700, how many were African?
One in eight
21.Which crop turned Virginia into a stable colony?
22.What did Opecancanough do only four years after the death of his brother Powhatan?
They granted the head of non-english immigrant families English citizenship
23.How did headrights encourage settlement in the Virginia colony?
B) They provided fifty acres of land to every settler who paid his own way
24.The availability of land during the first half of the seventeenth century shaped what kind of society in the Chesapeake?
D) A society with a degree of frontier equality
25.Why did Richard Hakluyt support English colonization?
C) Colonies would provide a place for the unemployed to work.
26.What could the Virginia colonists have done to improve their prospects in 1607?
A) Learned how to farm
27.How did Powhatan help the English stave off starvation?
A) He brought corn to the colony for barter.
King Jamess land grant to the Virginia Company of over 6 million acres allowed English settlers to
B) poach on Spanish claims and on Indian lands.
29.What did the concept of mercantilism dictate about the colonial economy?
B) What was good for England should become colonial policy.
30.What happened in Virginia after Bacon's death?
D) Royal officials nullified Bacon's Laws.
31.Spanish missionaries considered European ideas about civilization to be
D) necessary for the full conversion of Indians to Christianity.
32.Which statement characterizes most hired workers in Virginia?
B) Workers earned two to three times more in the Chesapeake than in England
33.By 1700, the British Caribbean annually exported nearly 50 million pounds of which product?
34.What explains the dispersion of settlements in the Chesapeake?
D) Tobacco farms required large amounts of land.
35.Indentured servants viewed themselves as
A) free people who were servants only temporarily.
36.Indentured servants could have their servitude extended by years if they
committed a crime
37.What was an employer required to give a servant after she or he completed an indenture?
38.Under royal government in Virginia, the colony's inhabitants could vote for
39.Which factor, along with Opecancanough's uprising, led King James to revoke the Virginia Company charter and make Virginia a royal colony in 1624?
A report highlighting the mismanagement of the Virginia Company
40.When Pocahontas intervened to save John Smith, she may have been participating in an Algonquian ceremony that
C) expressed Powhatan's supremacy.
41.What is a yeoman farmer?
A) One whose small plot of land is worked by himself and his family
42.Why were Powhatan and his people suspicious of English intentions?
C) Colonists often resorted to violence toward the Indians.
43.The slave population grew in Barbados because
C) planters imported more slaves from Africa.
44.Compared to slavery in Barbados, slaves in the Chesapeake
C) were subjected to more constant surveillance by whites.
45.The slave labor system that was introduced to the Chesapeake was "exported" from
46.Why did the social and political distance between planters and small farmer decrease between 1660 and 1700?
The colony increased its dependence on slave labor
47.Why did planters maintain the servant system through the 1680s?
B) Free people preferred to work for themselves.
48.How did the decline in the price of tobacco in the third quarter of the seventeenth century change the chesapeake?
Social divisions emerged
49.Which of the following British colonies brought in the greatest profit in 1700?
50.Unlike servants in England, Chesapeake servants
B) had no control over who purchased their labor.
1.After fifty years of contact with Europeans in the New World,
D) ninety percent of the Indians had died.
2.How did King Charles I (later Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) and his successors use the wealth of new spain?
To consolidate the largest empire in Europe
3.Like many other European colonies in the New World, New Spain developed a pattern of social organization in which
Europeans became a dominant minority
4.When Columbus first arrived in the New World, he believed he was in
B) the East Indies.
5.What was a result of contact and trade between the peoples of the Old and New Worlds?
Contact and trade exposed Indians to devastating Old World diseases
6.The transatlantic exchange of goods, people, and ideas between the New World and Europe is referred to as the
D) Columbian exchange.
7.Why was Portugal an unlikely nation to lead Europe into the Age of Exploration?
D) Portugal had less than 2 percent of the population of Christian Europe.
8.Which conquistador was buried in the Mississippi River by his men?
D) Hernando de Soto
9.What was the result of Charles V and Philip II's extensive warfare?
B) New taxes fell heavily on poor peasants.
10.During the 1500s, what was the most valuable export from New Spain?
11.Who established an unsuccessful colony along the St. Lawrence River in 1541?
12.How did Malinali provide invaluable assistance to Hernán Cortés?
C) She served as an interpreter for Cortés.
13.Portugal's early interest in exploration and expansion stemmed from its desire to
Expel Muslims from the Iberian Peninsula
14.The system of coerced labor in New Spain grew directly out of Spaniards assumption that
Spaniards were superior to indians
15.The distribution of conquered towns, the right to rule the Indians and the land around them, and the right to exact tribute and labor from the indians was called
16.Which technological advance aided European explorers by the year 1400?
17.Who did Cortés enlist to help defeat the Mexicans in 1521?
C) Militant Catholic priests
18.Who sailed around the Cape of Good Hope in order to find a sea route from Europe to Asia?
B) Christopher Columbus
19.What was a long-term consequence of the catastrophic bubonic plague in Europe?
The plague eliminated hope for social mobility
20.Which European power dominated the New World during the 1500s?
D) Spain, because it had the most colonial possessions
21.Cities in what European nation held a monopoly on trade with the Far east until the fifteenth century?
22.Which area did John Cabot claim for England in his search for a northwest passage?
23.Exploration and territorial expansion became popular with Europeans in the fifteenth century because
monarchs hoped to enlarge their power
24.Why did Spain introduce encomienda?
D) To allot a portion of New World wealth for the Catholic Church
25.What was Francisco Vásquez de Coronado searching for when he ventured into the Southwest and Great Plains of North America?
B) The burial mounds of the Adena
26.In order to adapt to the demands of lengthy ocean voyages, the portuguese
used enslaved africans to pilot their ships and stole maps from italian merchants
27.Martin Luther and the Catholic Church disagreed on
C) how salvation could be gained.
28.Christopher Columbus, like most education Europeans, believed that
C) the earth was spherical and could therefore be circumnavigated.
29.The gender and number of Spanish settlers in New Spain created a society in which
Spanish men frequently married Indian women
30.The Portuguese inaugurated a new phase of plantation labor by staffing the Cape Verde islands with
B) African slaves.
31.Which social class was made up of children who were born in the Spanish New World to parents who had emigrated from Spain?
32.Who held the largest treasure found in the New World before 1540?
33.Which event brought Queen Isabella to the throne in 1474?
A) The death of her brother Henry
34.How did the deaths of millions of Indians affect Spain?
A) The deaths created a labor shortage that led to the purchase of African slaves.
35.The Cathay Company sent Martin Frobisher to the New World to
C) open trade with China.
36.In 1549, the Spanish government issued the repartimiento, which
B) limited the amount of labor Indians had to perform.
37.The Treaty of Tordesillas between Spain and Portugal in 1494
D) divided the Atlantic territories between Spain and Portugal.
38.Which Spanish conquistador settled New Mexico in 1598?
A) Juan de Oñate
39.Which statement describes England's attempt to secure a North American settlement?
England sent explorers but could not sustain thriving colonies
40.What was the significance of Magellan's circumnavigation of the globe?
Europeans learned that a westward passage to the east was possible but not feasible
41.How did Ferdinand and Isabella react to Columbus's first voyage?
C) They believed Spain could challenge Portuguese dominance of the seas
42.The government of which country sponsored Christopher Columbus's 1492 exploration?
43.How did a sea route to Asia impact Europe?
A) The route allowed merchants to charge lower prices for imported eastern goods
44.In the early 1500s, Martin Waldseemüller was among the very first to understand that
There was a continent that existed separate from europe and asia
45.The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvars Cabral accidentally made landfall in
46.How did Spain benefit from settling Florida?
A) The settlement protected Spanish ships from pirates.
47.Who were the "Indians" that Columbus met at San Salvador? A) Mexica
48.Which segment of the Spanish population made up the majority of the approximately 225,000 Spaniards who settled in the colonies between 1492 and 1592?
Poor young men of common lineage
49.When Catholic priests complained to the Spanish government about the brutal treatment of indians, royal officials
replaced the cavalier conquistadors with royal bureaucrats
50.Which factor helped the Spaniards conquer the Mexicans?
C) A smallpox epidemic ravaged the Mexicans.
1.Why did Archaic cultures in the Southwest adopt agriculture?
A) The supply of wild plant food was highly unreliable.
2.The Archaic Indians in the Great Basin inhabited a region with
A) great environmental diversity.
3.Evidence indicates that before 1492, Native Americans
B) practiced human sacrifice.
4.Archaeological evidence indicates that the California Chumash culture was characterized by
a notable amount of conflict among villages
5.Why did nomadic peoples shun the use of pottery?
C) Pots were too heavy to carry around
6.What was a similarity among the many tribes that inhabited North america at the dawn of european colonization?
their cultures had developed in relation to their local natural enviroments
7.Why did Hohokam settlements utilize irrigation canals?
B) Canals allowed planting and harvesting crops twice a year.
8.What was the main source of food for Archaic peoples inhabiting the great basin?
9.The Mexica used an extensive tribute system to redistribute wealth from
the poor to the rich
10.Although experts debate the exact time people began migrating to north america, the first migrants probably arrived
less than 5,000 years ago. Around 15,000 BP
11.What do the artifacts that have survived from the Paleo-Indian era suggest about the first americans?
they specialized in hunting big mammals
12.What is a prudent estimate of the population of Native Americans in North America at the time of Columbus's arrival in the New World?
B) 4 million
13.How do historians study the past?
D) They study artifacts but mainly concentrate on written documents to determine the attitudes of a people
14.Ancient Southwestern Indians became experts in the conservation of
15.Experts believe that the Cahokians used woodhenges for
C) celestial observations.
16.How did agriculture change Archaic cultures?
D) It encouraged the gradual establishment of permanent settlements
17.What feature characterized the settlements of the Mogollon culture?
B) Pit houses
18.How did the Wisconsin glaciation allow hunters to reach the Western hemisphere?
the wisconsin glaciation created the wide land bridge of Beringia
19.The distinction between the study of humans by archaeologists and the study of humans by historians is often denoted by the
B) invention of writing.
20.Eastern Woodland peoples around the time of Columbus's arrival in 1492 clustered into which three major groups?
Algonquian, Iroquioian, and Muskogean peoples
21.Burial mounds and chiefdoms are associated with which ancient americans?
22.How do modern archaeologists study ancient peoples?
D) Modern archaeologists combine a variety of approaches.
23.How did Native Americans relate to the natural environment?
B) They changed the environment in a variety of ways that served their own interests
24.The Anasazi culture disappeared due to
B) a drought that lasted more than fifty years.
25.What environmental factor shaped the cultures of the Archaic peoples of the eastern woodland
26.What caused much of the warfare among Archaic Northwest peoples?
C) Conflicts over access to good fishing sites
27.Which group held the most exalted position in Mexican society?
28.Scholars speculate that Hopewell culture declined because
B) farming and new weapons made central authority unnecessary.
29.Though ancient Americans lacked writing skills, they
B) used other kinds of symbolic representation.
30.In AD 1492, the empire of the Mexica
B) possessed land roughly equal to that of Spain.
31.What does the term Archaic describe?
B) Hunting and gathering cultures that descended from Paleo-Indians
32.The League of Five Nations, which remained powerful well into the eighteenth century, was formed as
B) a confederation of the Iroquoian tribes for the purposes of war and diplomacy
33.About 11,000 years ago, the Paleo-Indians faced a major crisis because
D) the large animals they hunted had difficulty adapting to a warming climate.
34.Why did native peoples in California remain hunters and gatherers for hundreds of years after Europeans arrived in the Western Hemisphere?
C) Both land and ocean provided an abundant food supply.
35.When did Paleo-Indians reach the southern tip of South America and complete their expansion into the western hemisphere?
One thousand years after they first migrated to the western hemisphere
36.When did corn become a food crop for Southwestern cultures?
D) 3500 BP
37.Spanish conquerors exploited which weakness of the Mexican empire?
C) The empire's subjects did not see the Mexica as legitimate or fair rulers
38.When Europeans arrived in 1492, Native American cultures were
B) so varied that they defy easy and simple description.
39.Which of the following is an accurate description of Archaic Indians?
D) Archaic Indians hunted smaller game with traps, nets, and hooks.
40.Multistory cliff dwellings and pueblos are residential structure associated with the
A) Anasazi culture.
41.Archaic Indians who hunted the bison herds of the Great Plains were
D) nomads who moved constantly with their prey.
42.What does the analysis of artifacts in burial mounds reveal about the hopewell chiefdom?
burial was reserved for the most important members of society
43.Why do archaeologists believe that the first ancient Woodland mound builders were organized into chiefdoms?
The complexity of the mounds suggests that one chief commanded labor from others
44.Early Woodland Indians obtained food by
C) hunting deer.
45.Although the two regions had roughly the same population in 1492, the population density of North America was
much less than that of england
46.How did the diet and culture of Woodland peoples change around 4000 BP
Woodland cultures adopted limited forms of plant growing
47.How did archaeologists determine that Folsom hunters and giant bison were contemporaries?
They discovered a folsom point lodged between the ribs of a giant bison
48.How did Native American cultures adapt to the extinction of big game?
Paleo-Indians began foraging wild plant foods.
49.What was the reason for the early, prolonged absence of humans in the western hemisphere?
North and South America had become detached from the continent of Pangaea
50.The Athapascan tribes—mainly Apache and Navajo—were
D) skillful warriors who preyed on the sedentary pueblo Indians.
How did the population of the colonies change during the eighteenth century?
The colonies' population was eight times higher in 1770 than it was in 1700.
In the eighteenth century, the majority of immigrants coming to America were Scots-Irish or
About what percentage of colonists in 1770 traced their ancestry to England?
Why was the colonial economy in the eighteenth century unique?
The free population enjoyed a relatively high standard of living.
Why did New England's population lag behind the growth in other colonies?
Most immigrants chose other destinations.
How did New England families subdivide land under the policy of partible inheritance?
About equally among all the sons
Why did New Englanders have only a quarter of the wealth the free colonists in the South had in 1770?
arms did not produce huge surpluses of cash crops.
What was the dominant feature of the eighteenth-century New England economy?
It was a diversified, worldwide commercial economy focused on the Atlantic world
Which group dominated the commercial economy of New England?
Compared with the poor in England, the least wealthy eighteenth-century New Englanders
lived more comfortably.
Why were there so few slaves in New England during the eighteenth century?
New England's farming was not suited for slave labor.
The largest number of immigrants to the middle colonies were
Most of the Scots-Irish who came to the colonies were farm laborers or tenant farmers who were leaving behind
crop failures caused by numerous droughts.
How did most redemptioners pay for their voyage across the Atlantic?
By selling themselves as servants once they arrived
Which colony was known as ìthe best poor Man's Country in the Worldî?
Which statement characterizes slaves in the middle colonies in the eighteenth century?
Slaves were not really needed on wheat farms.
What was an early Pennsylvania policy encouraging settlement?
The colony negotiated with Indians to purchase land.
What industry produced the most economic growth in the middle colonies, particularly in Pennsylvania?
What was a result of the comparatively high standard of living in rural Pennsylvania and the surrounding middle colonies between 1720 and 1770?
The consumption of imported goods doubled.
What was the dominant group in eighteenth-century Philadelphia society in terms of wealth and political power?
Poor Richard's Almanack mirrored the beliefs of its Pennsylvania readers in its glorification of
What was the defining feature of the southern colonies in the eighteenth century?
By 1770, blacks made up what percentage of the southern population?
In which southern colony did the black population outnumber the white population almost two to one?
The huge increase in the slave population in the South during the second half of the eighteenth century can be attributed to natural increase and
the Atlantic slave trade.
Who kidnapped Olaudah Equiano and sold him into slavery?
From a planter's perspective, what was one advantage to buying slaves in small groups?
Small groups could be trained by seasoned slaves.
Why did South Carolina planters favor slaves from the central African Congo and Angola regions?
Cultural similarities eased newcomers' acculturation to slave life.
What was the purpose of ìseasoningî slaves?
To acclimate them to the environment of the southern colonies
Why did Thomas Jefferson state that ìa [slave] child raised every 2 years is of more profit than the crop of the best laboring [slave] manî?
Children ate less than a laboring slave man did.
Why did southern masters prefer black slaves over white indentured servants?
Slaves served for life with no legal way to gain freedom.
What did the Stono rebellion prove about eighteenth-century slaves?
Slaves could not win a firefight for freedom.
How did newly imported African slaves develop kinship relationships in the existing slave communities?
Established slave families often adopted new arrivals as fictive kin.
As the eighteenth century progressed, tobacco, rice, and indigo made the southern colonies
the richest in North America.
While the eighteenth-century Southern gentry privately looked down on poor whites, they publicly acknowledged them as
their equals by virtue of belonging to the white race.
How did the slaveholding gentry dominate Virginia politics?
Voting requirements favored the wealthy.
Members of the eighteenth-century Southern gentry set a cultural standard of
Although the three regions of British North America became more distinct in the latter part of the eighteenth century, they still shared what unifying experience?
A lessening reliance on religion
39. What was a consequence of the increased supply of items such as tobacco and sugar in eighteenth-century colonial America?
Ordinary people purchased more luxury goods.
The increasing presence of English goods in the colonial market in the eighteenth century
tied the colonists to the British economy and made them feel more British.
What was the largest group of non-Christians in eighteenth-century North America?
Which New England church was supported by taxes paid by all residents?
Prominent colonists in the plantation South and in cities such as Charleston, New York, and Philadelphia belonged to which church?
Which statement characterizes colonial deists?
Deists sought to find gods in natural phenomena.
How often did most eighteenth-century colonists go to church?
Seldom or not at all
What was the Great Awakening?
A religious revival movement
In addition to their competition for land, colonial settlers and Indians engaged in conflicts over
he fur trade.
Why did Spanish officials decide to build forts and missions on New Spain's northern frontier during the eighteenth century?
To block Russian access to present-day California
Why did colonial governors have difficulty gaining the trust and respect of influential colonists?
Their terms of office were often less than five years.
What was the status of colonial assemblies by 1720?
Assemblies won the power to initiate important legislation.
What caused the Seven Years' War?
Conflicts over territory in the Ohio Valley
What did the attack at Fort Necessity reveal about the French commitment to the Ohio territory?
The French had no intention of departing the disputed territory.
What did Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Hutchinson hope to accomplish with the Albany Plan of union?
The creation of an indian policy
Why didn't the Iroquois feel compelled to help the British after the Albany Congress?
They believed that the French military presence would discourage further westward expansion by american colonists
How did William Pitt turn the war in favor of the British?
He committed massive resources to the war.
Which territory did England receive in the Treaty of Paris?
What did the colonists learn from the Seven Years' War?
British military discipline was far more brutal than they had expected.
Why did William Pitt keep several thousand British troops in America after the Seven Years' War?
To maintain the peace between the colonists and the Indians
What happened in the aftermath of the Seven Years' War?
Indians lost their land and had to face colonists moving west.
Who was credited with leading a violent rebellion against the British in 1763?
What was the purpose of the Proclamation of 1763?
To prevent colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains
Why did King George III seek to extract more money from the colonists?
King George thought the colonists should help pay England's war debt.
In an effort to generate income for England, in 1764 George Grenville initiated the
How did the Stamp Act differ from the Sugar Act?
The Stamp Act was an internal tax that affected a great number of colonists.
George Grenville claimed that Americans had "virtual representation" because
the House of Commons represented all British subjects, wherever they were.
Who initiated a series of resolves in Virginia in protest of the Stamp Act?
What did the Virginia Resolves argue?
Virginia alone had the right to tax Virginians.
What was the reaction to the Virginia Resolves?
Colonists saw them as radical because newspapers printed all seven resolutions.
The first street demonstrations against the Stamp Act occurred in which colony?
What did the protests of the Sons of Liberty prove to colonists?
Demonstrations could have a decisive impact on politics.
How did Massachusetts protestors target Lieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson?
Protestors ransacked his house until only the exterior walls stood.
What was the significance of the Stamp Act Congress, held in New York in 1765
It advanced the idea of intercolonial political action.
How did the British government respond to the colonial reaction to the Stamp Act?
It repealed the Stamp Act in March 1766.
How did the Declaratory Act show Britain's refusal to compromise on Parliament's power to tax?
It asserted Parliament's right to legislate for the colonies.
In 1767, Charles Townshend enacted the Revenue Act, which
placed new duties on imported items.
How did the colonists respond to the Townshend duties?
Colonists resented that part of the revenue would pay royal governors' salaries.
Townshend suspended the governance functions of which colonial assembly after it refused to enforce the quartering act?
Whose protest letter caused Lord Hillsborough to call for the dissolution of the Massachusetts assembly?
Which of the following statements characterizes the effects of the nonimportation agreements of 1768-1769?
By 1769, merchants from new England to Charleston were supporting nonimportation
The Daughters of Liberty suggested that women participate in public affairs and protest the townshend duties by
participating in nonconsumption
What was the result of the anti-British boycotts?
Imports fell by 40 percent.
What was the Boston Massacre?
A skirmish in which five people were killed
John Adams represented British captain Thomas Preston and his soldiers who were involved in the Boston massacre
to show that local leaders supported british liberty and law
Lord North removed all the Townsend duties except for the tax on
The Gaspée incident of 1772 caused many towns in Massachusetts and in other colonies to set up a communications network of standing committees known as
committees of correspondence
According to the British, the major purpose of the Tea Act of 1773 was to
boost sales for Britain's East India Company.
Dissenting colonists believed the real goal of the Tea Act of 1773 was to
pay the salaries of royal officials.
The Coercive Acts, passed by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for the Destruction of the Tea, included
a law closing boston harbor until the tea was paid for
The Quebec Act offended many Americans because
it gave Roman Catholic Quebec control of the Ohio Valley.
Why did the Coercive Acts spread alarm among the colonists?
They feared their liberties were insecure.
The "powder alarm" of September 1774 convinced Thomas Gage that
ordinary colonists would unite for armed conflict.
Which colony failed to send a delegate to the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia?
How did the First Continental Congress characterize America's relationship with Parliament?
Parliament had the authority to regulate colonial trade.
What was the purpose of the Continental Association created at the First Continental Congress?
To enforce a staggered and limited boycott of trade
How did General Gage react to the increased violence and collapsing royal authority in massachusetts early in 1775
He requested twenty thousand additional troops from england
Why did General Gage plan a surprise attack on an ammunition storage site in Concord?
British leaders ordered him to stop the dissenters before they organized.
Who fired the first shot at Lexington?
An unknown person
Following the battles of Lexington and Concord, Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of Virginia, issued a proclamation
promising freedom to defecting, able-bodied slaves who would fight for the british
Why did the northern slave Phillis Wheatley gain national attention?
She wrote popular poetry about freedom for slaves.
Slaves in Ulster County, New York, responded to the onset of hostilities by
stashing away ammunition.
1.What made Robert Shurtleff of Massachusetts an atypical member of the Continental Army?
He was a woman disguised as a man
2.Where did delegates from all of the colonies meet to discuss their course of action after the skirmishes at Lexington and Concord?
Second Continental Congress
3.The initial goal of the Second Continental Congress was to
raise and supply an army.
4.Why did delegates to the Second Continental Congress remain reluctant to break with britain in 1775
the delegates worried that independence would destroy political stability
5.The delegates to the Second Continental Congress chose George Washington as commander in chief because
they wanted to show England that there was commitment to war outside New England
.Which statement characterizes the continental dollars authorized the congress in 1775?
The dollars were merely paper backed by no precious metals
7.What was the significance of the battle of Bunker Hill?
The British won a very costly battle.
8.What did the British General William Howe do after the victory at bunker hill?
He retreated to Boston
9.In the Olive Branch Petition of July 1775, congressional moderates proposed that
American colonial assemblies be recognized as individual parliaments
10.In his radical pamphlet Common Sense, Thomas Paine encouraged americans to
declare independence from great britain
11.In their revisions to the Declaration of Independence, Georgia and south carolina removed
any mention of the issue of slavery
12.What was the significance of the New York delegates' endorsement of the Declaration of Independence on July 15, 1776?
The resolution for independence had passed unanimously
13.What obstacle did the British army face in the Revolutionary War?
It was difficult to supply their army with food and supplies.
14.The British goal in fighting the war in America was to
regain colonial allegiance.
15.How did the congress raise the necessary troops for the Continental army?
It offered land grants to those who committed for the wars duration
16.Women served in the Continental army by
performing domestic tasks.
17.As manpower needs in the Continental army increased,
free blacks were welcomed into service in the northern states.
18.What was one of the many weaknesses of the Continental army?
It was undermanned.
19.What was the American strategy in the war with Britain?
Turn back and defeat the invading armies.
20.What was the significance of the Continental army's campaign in montreal and quebec?
It showed that the war was more than a reaction to the invasion of massachusetts
21.In the fall of 1776, the British hired 8,000 Hessian mercenaries and
concentrated their military might in New York.
22.The Continental army enjoyed its first victory over the British on christmas night in 1776, when the americans
surprised the hessians in new jersey
23.At the time of the war with Britain, white women
began to participate in politics through discussion and fundraising
24.Many of the most visible and dedicated loyalists (also called Tories by their enemies) came from which group?
25.How did American Indians respond to the outbreak of war?
They hoped at first to stay neutral before being forced to choose sides
26.Which Indian people sided with the Americans during the war?
27.Which of the following was a treasonable act as defined by state laws in 1775 and 1776?
supplying the british army
28.During the Revolution, punishment for a treasonable act might include
the suspension of voting privileges
29.How did the British army treat prisoners of war?
British leaders treated prisoners worse than criminals
30.What proportion of Revolutionary War fatalities occurred on British prison ships?
More than the number killed in battle
31.What was the economic result of the Continental Congress's decision to issue paper money?
money became devalued
32.As the currency depreciated, the Continental Congress paid soldiers by
issuing certificates of debt
33.In August 1777, instead of sailing north up the Hudson River, General Howe chose which surprising military strategy?
He sailed to Philadelphia
34.What did the British government do after capturing Philadelphia in September 1777?
Proposed a negotiated settlement that did not include American independence
35.During the winter of 1777-78, the Continental army morale was
low because corruption was undermining the patriots' cause.
36.Relationships between Americans and Indians during the war were increasingly characterized by
violent anti-indian campaigns
37.Who led a group of Kentucky militiamen dressed as Indians in an attack at kaskaskia?
george rogers clark
38.Why did Indian tribes ally with the Americans as the war wore on?
They realized the likelihood of American victory.
39.Why was Burgoyne's defeat at the battle of Saratoga a decisive moment in the revolutionary war?
It brought france into the war on the side of the patriots
40.Why did France ally with the Americans after Saratoga?
It saw an opportunity to defeat England.
41.What immediate impact did the Americans' alliance with France have on the british?
the commander of the british navy argued for abandoning the war
42.Where did British troops achieve victory at the beginning of their campaign in the South?
Georgia and South Carolina
43.Where did the Americans suffer their worst defeat of the entire war?
Camden, South Carolina
44.How did news of Benedict Arnold's treason affect the war?
Arnold's treason inspired renewed patriotism in America.
45.How did battle tactics in the South change after Gates's defeat and arnolds treason?
guerilla warfare erupted across the southern backcountry
46.After Cornwallis achieved the upper hand in Virginia, the balance of power on the battlefield changed dramatically because
the French gave military support to Washington.
47.Which event led to the end of the Revolutionary War at Yorktown
The French forces taking control of the Chesapeake
48.What was the content of the first article of the Treaty of Paris?
The king recognized the independence of the United States.
49.What did the peace that began in 1783 mean for the Indians?
Only a temporary lull in fighting
50.After five and a half years of fighting, how long did it take to negotiate peace and evacuate the british from its former colonies?
Which factor contributed to a rift between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson during the 1790s?
Hamilton admired the British.
Why was Washington quickly and unanimously elected president in february 1789?
washington personified the republican ideal of leadership
How did Washington conduct himself once in office?
He encouraged pomp and ceremony to create respect.
Who did Washington choose to be his secretary of the treasury?
D) Alexander Hamilton
What was John Adams's only official duty as vice president?
To preside over the Senate
In response to promises that had been made in order to obtain ratification of the Constitution, James Madison drew up the
Bill of Rights.
The eighth and ninth amendments to the constitution dealt with
federal and state authority.
Significantly, no one complained about the Bill of Rights failing to protect
the right to vote
According to Benjamin Rush and other republican writers, how could women contribute to a better society?
By teaching sons virtue and good morals
What effect did the founding of the new nation have on traditional gender relations?
traditional gender relations remained largely unaltered from the norm
Before the federal government settled into its permanent home in Washington, D.C., the nation's capital had most recently been moved from
New York City to Philadelphia.
Why did American cotton production experience a boom in the late 1790s?
The invention of the cotton gin allowed greater production
What 1792 event stimulated road building?
The U.S. Post Office was established.
Why did Alexander Hamilton advocate for rolling old certificates of debt into new government bonds?
Bonds would infuse money into the economy
To restore faith in the credit of the federal government, Hamilton proposed
the assumption of the states unpaid war debts by the federal government
Why did critics oppose the federal government's assuming the states' old Revolutionary War debt?
Such action could subordinate the states to federal power.
Why did James Madison eventually restrain his opposition to hamiltons debt package?
Hamilton promised to back the building of a new capital city on the potomac river
Thomas Jefferson advised Washington that the Constitution prohibited which of hamiltons economic programs?
the chartering of banks by congress
How did Washington respond to Hamilton's idea for the Bank of the united states?
he gave the bank a twenty-year charter
What was the purpose of the moderate tariff that Hamilton proposed in his report on manufactures?
to encourage the production of american made goods
21.Congress rejected which of Hamilton's economic programs?
The import tariff
To meet the interest payments on the national debt under his consolidation plan, Alexander Hamilton convinced Congress to pass
an excise tax on whiskey.
Who participated in the Whiskey Rebellion?
How did President Washington respond to the Whiskey Rebellion?
Washington nationalized the Pennsylvania militia.
What happened to the two men convicted of treason during the whiskey rebellion?
washington pardoned them
Who did Washington send to negotiate with Creek Indians in the southwest?
The 1790 Treaty of New York prohibited the Creek Indians from trading with
Which of the following describes the U.S. government's early policy toward indians in the northwest territory?
displace the indians and clear the way for permanent settlements in ohio
What happened when General Anthony St. Clair led troops into Indian territory in the fall of 1791?
His army fell to defeat after an attack by Miami and Shawnee tribes
In 1794, General Anthony Wayne's defeat of the Indians at Fallen timbers resulted in
the treaty of greenville
Who led a group of Greeks, Egyptians, and U.S. Marines in a surprisingly successful attack on Derne, Tripoli in 1804?
Why did Spain encourage immigration to its Louisiana territory after the seven years war?
to keep out encroaching americans
.Why did the United States express concern after Spain returned louisiana to france?
france was then under the rule of powerful expansionist napoleon
What happened when Robert R. Livingston approached the French about buying New Orleans?
He purchased the entire Louisiana territory.
.The exploration of the Spanish and Indian territory west of the Mississippi River by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark succeeded in
collecting valuable information on the natural environment of the region
.Which explorer was arrested and taken to Mexico by the Spanish for traveling too far to the west?
Why did Thomas Jefferson want to cultivate a peaceful relationship with the osage indians?
He wanted to clear their land for american farmers
.What happened when the American government attempted to dominate the comanche indians?
The comanche became trading partners with americans
How did Congress respond to the sinking of the ship Chesapeake in June 1807?
It banned all importation of british goods into the country
How did the Embargo Act of 1807 affect the United States?
It increased unemployment in the United States.
.How did women in early-nineteenth-century Washington, D.C., play key roles in political circles?
By influencing patronage
In negotiating the Treaty of Fort Wayne in 1809, William Henry Harrison angered the shawnee chief Tecumseh by
negotiating with chiefs who had no legitimate claims to the land they ceded to the US Government
What did Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 do?
It prohibited trade with England and France and their colonies.
Most of the young congressmen known as War Hawks were
from the West and South.
Why did congressmen from New England and some Middle Atlantic states oppose was with great britain in 1812?
they feared the war would hurt commerce
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend was marked by the
death of over 500 Native Americans.
What did British soldiers do once they entered Washington, D.C., in 1814?
The soldiers set fire to much of the city, including the white house
While Andrew Jackson's defeat of the British at New Orleans cemented his status as a military hero, what he did not know at the time was that
negotiators had signed a peace agreement two weeks earlier
What was the result of the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812?
The treaty of ghent settled few of the issues that had led to war
How did the War of 1812 and the Hartford Convention affect the federalist party
the federalist party died as a political force after opposing a popular war
Which group suffered the greatest losses in the War of 1812?
In the early nineteenth century, the Anglo-American view of women was embodied in the legal concept of feme covert, which held that
a wife's legal existence was completely subsumed by that of her husband
What did state legislatures do when faced with the opportunity to rewrite the laws regulating domestic relations?
Legislatures did little to change any laws relating to domestic relations
By 1820, divorce in the United States
was possible in most states
Which activity was open to single women in every state in the early republic?
Why did slave marriages avoid the unequal power relationships characteristic of white marriages?
Slaves could not enter into legal contractual obligations
Why was Jemima Wilkinson the best-known exhorting woman in the United States?
She proclaimed her body no longer female or male and preached in public
In 1820, the courses and reading lists at the top female academies
resembled the courses and reading lists at elite male colleges.
.Unlike theological seminaries that trained men for the clergy, Troy Female Seminary and Hartford Seminary prepared their female students
.In the 1790s, which state became the first to enfranchise all adult males?
Why were canals an important innovation in the early nineteenth century?
They allowed cheaper transport because boats could support heavier loads
Which statement describes the effects of the first railroad lines in the United States?
Railroads did not monopolize travel because lines were too short.
Which group made up the bulk of the workforce in New England textile mills until the 1840s?
Young women who hoped to gain more autonomy
For workers in early Massachusetts factories, wages were
low because workers were easily replaced.
.In the 1820s and 1830s, shoebinding, an important component of shoe manufacturing, was
comparatively low-paying work performed by women at home
What role did bankers play in the economy of Jacksonian America?
Bankers issued banknotes, which were theoretically backed by hard money
.Lawyers of the 1820s and 1830s created the legal foundation for an economy that gave priority to
individuals interested in maximizing their own wealth.
How did Andrew Jackson and many of his followers hope to maximize economic opportunity
Jackson wanted to end government support for business
Which factor contributed to the panic of 1819?
A contraction of the money supply
What important transition in American politics took place during the Jacksonian era?
Democratic rhetoric made it necessary for candidates to appeal to common people
Why did the number of white male voters increase between the elections of 1824 and 1828?
Most states abolished property qualifications for voting.
Why did newspapers become crucial to party politics in Jacksonian America?
Many newspapers pushed an individual party's agenda
The election of 1828 saw which issue come to the forefront for the first time in a presidential campaign?
the character of the candidates
How did political leaders feel about political parties after 1828?
Political created important party loyalty.
Andrew Jackson set an important political precedent when he selected his cabinet by
excluding members of political factions that were not loyal to him
As president, Andrew Jackson favored
a limited federal government with an Indian removal policy.
.In 1830, President Jackson convinced Congress to pass legislation that
forced Native Americans to relocate west of the Mississippi.
What was the result of Black Hawk's resistance to removal from illinois?
the massacre of some 400 of his people
What did the Supreme Court rule in the case of Worcester v. Georgia (1832)?
The laws of georgia had no jurisdiction over the cherokee
What was the infamous Trail of Tears?
A 1,200-mile forced march of Cherokees who were expelled from their land
The doctrine of nullification outlined by John C. Calhoun in response to the Tariff of Abominations argued that
when Congress overstepped its powers, states had the right to nullify congresss acts
What document did Calhoun cite as precedent for the doctrine of nullification?
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798
How did President Jackson respond to South Carolina's threat of nullification?
He sent armed ships to charleston harbor
Why did Henry Clay and Daniel Webster convince the Bank of the United States to apply for an early renewal of its charter in 1832?
To force Andrew Jackson into an unpopular veto
How did his reelection in 1832 affect Jackson's view of the Bank of the united states?
He ordered federal deposits removed from its vaults
.Despite the economic turmoil of Jackson's second administration, from 1835 to 1837, for the first and only time in US history
the government had a surplus of money
In Advice to American Women, Mrs. A. J. Graves offered support for which new idea about gender relations in Jacksonian America?
Men and women occupy separate spheres in American society.
What changed after 1815 to strengthen the idea of separate spheres and separate duties for men and women?
Mens work increasingly brought cash to the household
How did the spread of public schools in the 1820s and 1830s change teaching?
more school districts hired women as cheap instructors
What happened to most boys who did not remain on the farm during the 1820s and 1830s?
they left school at the age of fourteen to become an apprentice or a clerk
1.To help facilitate the increase in U.S. agricultural productivity in the 1840s and 1850s, the federal governme
sold the land for as little as $1.25 an acre.
2.Why did American manufacturers, unlike their European counterparts, invent labor-saving methods and devices during the first half of the nineteenth century?
workers were in limited supply and thus more expensive
3.Which region led the nation in manufacturing?
4.By 1860, most of the nation's energy came from people and
5.What was the effect of the growth of railroads in the 1850s?
New industries, like telegraph communications, flourished.
6.Who tended to benefit from America's impressive economic growth in the early nineteenth century?
Native born white men
7.Supporters of the free-labor ideal claimed that the system
allowed hired laborers to become self-employed.
8.What did free-labor proponents believe about education?
It offered another opportunity for Americans to achieve their potential
9.Which statement describes the economic status of Americans by 1860?
Most Americans owned no land
10.Three-fourths of the almost 4.5 million immigrants who arrived between 1840 and 1860 came from either Ireland or
11.Most German immigrants were the families of
12.What happened to most Irish immigrants who arrived in the United States in the 1840s and 1850s?
Most immigrants entered at the bottom rung of the free-labor ladder
13.What did New York journalist and armchair expansionist John L. O'Sullivan mean when he coined the term manifest destiny in 1845?
Americans had the God-given right to expand their civilization across the continent
14.How did the United States and Great Britain resolve competing claims on the Oregon territory in 1818?
The two nations decided on joint occupation.
15.How did white settlers who traveled west in wagon trains during the mid-1800s bring devastation to the plains indians?
whites brought with them alcohol and deadly diseases
16.How did the government respond when westbound settlers asked for protection from the plains indians?
The government built forts along the trail
17.What was the experience of most women who lived in Oregon?
They worked tirelessly.
18.Who led the Mormon exodus to the Great Salt Lake?
19.Within ten years of arriving at the territory around the Great Salt lake, the mormon community
developed an efficient irrigation system
20.Why were Mexico's northern borderlands vulnerable to American expansionists?
the borderlands were sparsely populated
21.Who were the migrants who settled on the Texas land granted to stephen f austin by mexico in the 1820s?
Southerners who brought cotton and slaves with them
22.Why did Mexico outlaw the introduction of additional slaves in Texas in 1829?
It hoped to discourage any more american settlers from coming to the area
23.Texans gained their independence from Mexico in 1836 after
Sam Houston's army defeated Santa Anna's troops in a surprise attack
24.In the 1820s, Americans were beginning to trickle into thinly populated California; in an effort to increase Mexican migration to that area, the Mexican government
granted huge estates to new Mexican settlers.
25.Why did Congress refuse to annex Texas into the Union?
Texas would come into the Union as a slave state
26.What was the dominant issue in the 1844 presidential election campaign?
27.President Tyler obtained approval for the annexation of Texas
through a joint resolution of Congress.
28.How was President Polk able to add Oregon to U.S. holdings?
He renewed an old offer to divide Oregon along the forty-ninth parallel.
29.When Mexico refused the Polk administration's offer to buy Mexico's northern territories, the United States realized manifest destiny would require
30.Which group was most outspoken in its opposition to war with mexico
Which of the following was the most common way slaves reacted to their bondage?
Why were open slave revolts uncommon in the South?
Heavily armed whites outnumbered blacks two to one by 1860.
What percentage of nonslaveholding rural white men were landless and very poor?
.African American Christianity, created by slaves themselves,
How did yeomen in the plantation belt of the South feel about wealthy planters
they relied on planters to ship and sell their cotton for them
.Most plantation mistresses kept their opinions on issues to themselves, but the diarist mary boykin chesnut echoed more women in railing against
After 1820, what caused slavery to become more profitable, which in turn increased the souths political power?
Cotton production expanded to the west
Elite Southerners maintained their power over the yeoman majority by
convincing yeomen of their shared interests
.Which staple crop was grown almost exclusively along a narrow strip of coast stretching from the carolinas into georgia?
How important was agriculture to the economy of the North?
It combined with commerce and manufacturing in a mixed economy
.How did the institution of slavery affect social relations in the South?
Whites were unified around race rather than divided by social class
What happened to slave men when they became elderly?
They moved on to new jobs, like cleaning stables.
Most free blacks in the antebellum South
How did powerful whites defend slavery from attacks by critics?
They used intimidation tactics to silence critics.
Which statement describes the daily lives of southern women on the plantation
they worked long hours performing plantation duties
In 1860, the largest number of white Southerners
were nonslaveholding yeoman farmers.
How did white Virginians respond to the violence of Nat Turner's rebellion?
white virginians blamed the revolt on outside agitators
What was the primary cause of the growth in the southern slave population between 1790 and 1869?
Which statement characterizes white Southerners in the antebellum south
most white southerners did not own slaves
In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville observed that the major differences between the north and south revolved around
the southern institution of slavery
How did slaves manipulate planters' emphasis on paternalism?
Slaves sometimes negotiated concessions like small garden plots.
The rarest job on the plantation for slaves was that of driver, the person who
made sure all slaves worked hard
In 1790, there were fewer than 700,000 slaves in the South; by 1860 that numer had increased to about
.Which statement characterizes the religion of southern plain folk?
Southern plain folk enjoyed religious revivals.
What was a consequence of the South's lack of economic diversity?
Newly arrived European immigrants tended to settle in the North.
Most upcountry yeomen focused on cultivating
The economy of the upcountry South depended on
As the price of slaves continued to rise, masters began to treat their slaves marginally better because
it was in the master's best interest to treat his slaves well enough so they could have children
According to South Carolina political leader John C. Calhoun, what happened in states where slavery was abolished?
The condition of blacks got worse.
What did plantation owners mean when they described the master-slave relationship in terms of "paternalism?"
A slave's labor and obedience were exchanged for the master's care and guidance
How did James Buchanan respond as the secession crisis loomed over the final weeks of his presidential administration?
Buchanan remained in Washington and did nothing.
What happened when Democrats met to choose a presidential candidate in Charleston, south carolina?
The party divided into southern and northern factions
During the debates, Stephen A. Douglas depicted Abraham Lincoln as
an abolitionist who loved blacks.
How did the Mexican-American War affect American politics?
It divided the nation based on the issue of slavery in the territories.
What effect did the shift to "geographic" parties have on political debate in the United states?
the shift increased polarization
What did Abraham Lincoln personally believe about slavery?
Slavery was morally wrong.
What happened to John Brown after his raid on Harper's Ferry?
The American Party, or Know-Nothings, appeared in the mid-1850s as
a reaction to large numbers of Roman Catholics coming to the United States.
What did the Whigs do in an attempt to reunite their party during the presidential campaign of 1848?
remain silent on the issue of slavery
What was the result of Preston Brooks's caning of Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner in 1856
It further inflamed sectional passions over the institution of slavery
Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan proposed the doctrine of popular sovereignty, a measure that would allow
people who settled the territories to decide whether or not they wanted slavery
How did the increasingly confident Republican Party prepare for the election of 1860?
It expanded its platform to address other issues.
What did the Supreme Court rule in its 1857 Dred Scott decision?
Dred Scott was not a citizen of the United States.
The presidential election of 1856 revealed the
strength of the new Republican Party.
.Which issue in the debate of 1849-1850 led to the Compromise of 1850?
The balance of power between the North and the South in Congress
How did a Nashville convention of southern businessmen shock the nation in 1860?
The meeting called for the reopening of the African slave trade.
.What made Abraham Lincoln an attractive candidate for the Republican nomination?
He represented the crucial state of Illinois.
What was a requirement of the Fugitive Slave Act, part of the Compromise of 1850
All citizens were expected to assist officials in apprehending runaway slaves.
Per the Compromise of 1850, which state entered the union as a free state?
How did Stephen A. Douglas respond in 1857 when proslavery forces in Lecompton, Kansas, drafted a constitution that many felt was fraudulent?
douglas came out against the proslavery constitution
What did the Wilmot Proviso of 1846 propose?
Slavery would be prohibited throughout the entire area ceded by Mexico.
Which Southerner argued that "I consider slavery much more secure in the Union than out of it
The United States negotiated the Gadsden Purchase in 1853
to support the dream of a southern route for the transcontinental railroad.
What did the federal government do to the Plains Indians who lived in what became Nebraska?
The federal government pushed them farther west
.In 1854, Stephen A. Douglas sponsored the Kansas-Nebraska Act and included a section repealing the missouri compromise because
douglas needed southern support to pass his legislation
Southerners felt so much hostility toward the Republican Party during the presidential election of 1860 that
ten states refused to allow lincolns name to appear on the ballot
Which Senator argued that, when it came to ending slavery, there was "a higher law than the constitution - the law of god?
Why did the Democrats remain a national organization after 1954?
Gains in the South offset losses in the North.
What did Douglas argue in what became known as the Freeport Doctrine?
Settlers could ban slavery by not passing the laws necessary to protect slave property
Northern women supported the Republican Party By
marching in Republican parade
Why did some Indian tribes side with the Confederates during the Civil War?
The tribes hoped the Confederacy would grant them more independence.
How did Northerners view the war once it began?
The Civil War was a struggle to preserve the Union.
Most Northerners viewed secession as
n attack on the best government on earth.
Which general won the battle of Gettysburg?
George G. Meade
The bloodiest day of the Civil War occurred September 17, 1862, at
Antietam Creek, Maryland.
What was the significance of the conflict between the Virginia and the Monitor?
The conflict marked the birth of the ironclad warship.
What was the result of strikes by workers in northern industries during the war?
The strikes rarely succeeded.
Who went on to found the Red Cross after serving as a nurse in Union battlefield units during the war?
What did Lincoln consider the biggest obstacle to the acceptance of emancipation in the Union
White fears that freed slaves would disrupt northern society
What did Southern clergymen think about the Civil War?
Clergymen believed God had blessed slavery and the new nation.
What happened to the northern working class as a result of the North's increased industrial production
inflation caused most workers standard of living to fall
How did slaves use the chaos and turmoil of the Civil War to whittle away at their bondage?
They forced concessions from their masters and mistresses
Why did some states in the Upper South opt for secession from the Union?
They couldn't see themselves fighting fellow Southerners.
Initially the Confederacy sought King Cotton diplomacy, a strategy based on the belief that
European nations' need for cotton would lead them to support the Confederacy.
What event marked the official beginning of armed hostilities between the North and South?
Confederates firing on Fort Sumter
What irony emerges when considering the wartime leadership of Abraham Lincoln and jefferson Davis?
The inexperienced Lincoln proved to be a more adept leader than the seasoned Davis
.In March 1862, Congress tilted toward emancipating slaves when it
forbade the practice of returning fugitive slaves to their masters.
Why did Southerners believe they had a real chance of winning the Civil War?
Southern men believed they were physically tougher than northern men.
What prompted an Irish-led riot that took the lives of at least 105 people in New York City in the summer of 1863?
The newly enacted draft law
What was General William T. Sherman's strategy for defeating the Confederates in Georgia in 1864?
He orchestrated a scorched-earth military campaign aimed at destroying the will of southern people
After his victory at Chattanooga, Tennessee, in 1864, General Ulysses S. Grant
launched a massive military campaign that would take his troops on a sweep through Virginia down to Louisiana
What was the capital city of the Confederacy in 1863?
Why did the South experience greater inflation than the North during the Civil War?
The Confederacy printed more money.
Why did President Lincoln choose not to make the Civil War a struggle over slavery?
He doubted his power to tamper with the "domestic institutions" of any state.
Aside from leading to the legal destruction of slavery, the Civil War itself helped destroy slavery in practice because
the discipline necessary to keep slavery intact was disrupted
Why did King Cotton diplomacy fail?
European nations turned to Egypt and India for cotton.
What happened in the loyal border states of Missouri and Kentucky?
A violent pro-southern minority remained sympathetic to the southern cause.
Women served which of the following roles during the Civil War?
Women worked as government secretaries.
How many of the fifteen slave states joined the Confederacy?
What was the purpose of the second Confiscation Act, passed by Congress on July 17, 1862
The act freed the slaves of rebel masters
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