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33 terms

Bio MB Chap 38 & 39

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Many aspects of the angiosperm life cycle make flowering plants particularly well-suited to life on land. In fact, angiosperms are the most diverse and widespread of all plants.
Which six of the following statements reflect angiosperm adaptations to life on land?

In angiosperms, a gametophyte protects a dependent sporophyte from desiccation.
Flowers attract animal pollinators carrying pollen from other plants of the same species.
Fruits aid in the dispersal of seeds by wind or by animals that carry or eat the fruits.
In many angiosperms, the male gametophyte contained in a pollen grain can be transported many miles away by wind or animal pollinators.
Floral parts of the sporophyte protect the reduced female gametophyte from drying out and from UV radiation.
Fertilization in angiosperms is dependent on the presence of water.
Spores contain a supply of stored food, enabling the embryo to remain dormant until conditions are suitable for germination.
Seeds protect and nourish plant embryos, and fruits protect the seeds.
Seeds enable plant embryos to be dispersed long distances from the parent plant via wind or animals.
Flowers attract animal pollinators carrying pollen from other plants of the same species

Fruits aid in the dispersal of seeds by wind or by animals that carry or eat the fruits.

In many angiosperms, the male gametophyte contained in a pollen grain can be transported many miles away by wind or animal pollinators.

Floral parts of the sporophyte protect the reduced female gametophyte from drying out and from UV radiation.

Seeds protect and nourish plant embryos, and fruits protect the seeds.

Seeds enable plant embryos to be dispersed long distances from the parent plant via wind or animals
the order of pollination, fertilization and seed development
1. pollen grain lands on stigma
2. pollen tube grows down the style
3. generative cell divides, forming two sperm
4. two sperm are discharged into the female gametophyte
5. sperm fuse with the egg and two polar nuclei
6. zygote forms and divides into a terminal cell and a basal cell
7. cells of embryo differentiate into three tissue types
8. seed dries out and becomes dormant
Why do fleshy fruits often have seeds with very tough seed coats?

So the seeds can extend the distance they travel by catching breezes
So the seeds can adhere to passing animals
So the seeds can be dispersed by propulsion
So the seeds can survive the mechanical forces and conditions in an animal's gut
So the seeds can survive the mechanical forces and conditions in an animal's gut
What characterizes the fruit of seeds that are dispersed by the wind?

They are very fleshy.
They are large.
They contain a large amount of sugar.
They have structures to extend the distance they travel on the wind.
They have structures to extend the distance they travel on the wind.
True or false? Fruits provide food to the developing plant.
F
Which part of a flower develops into the seed?

Endosperm cell
Carpel
Pericarp
Ovule
Ovule
Which term describes the portion of a peach that can be eaten by humans?
Seed coat
Endosperm
Zygote
Pericarp
Pericarp
True or false? The endosperm tissue that nourishes the developing plant has the same nutritional characteristics regardless of the plant species.
F
Which part of a plant attracts pollinators?
Carpel
Sepal
Stamen
Petals
Petals
Which process involves the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma?
Gametogenesis
Pollination
Germination
Fertilization
Pollination
True or false? The endosperm in a seed develops into the embryo.
F
Which term describes the male gametophytes of flowering plants?
Megaspores
Micropyle
Pollen grains
Microsporocytes
Pollen grains
Which structure formed by the male gametophyte allows sperm to reach the ovary of a flowering plant?
Micropyle
Pollen tube
Stigma
Anther
Pollen tube
How is fertilization in flowering plants different from fertilization in other plant groups?

One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form a cell that develops into endosperm.
One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with a polar nucleus to form a diploid cell that forms a nutrient-rich tissue.
Two sperm nuclei fuse with a polar nucleus to form a diploid zygote.
One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote.
One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form a cell that develops into endosperm.
Which of the following statements about seed formation in a flowering plant is true?

The swellings that develop into cotyledons are located at the end of the embryo on top of the row of single cells.
The basal cell formed from mitosis of the zygote divides to form a globular mass that is the route for nutrient transfer to the developing embryo.
The terminal cell formed from mitosis of the zygote divides to form a row of single cells that eventually forms the embryo.
Hypocotyls are the seed leaves of the embryonic plant.
The swellings that develop into cotyledons are located at the end of the embryo on top of the row of single cells.
What is endosperm?

the leaves that are a part of the embryo
via cotyledons, a source of food for the embryo
the female portion of a flowering plant
tissue that develops into a protective seed coat surrounding the embryo
the male portion of a flowering plant
via cotyledons, a source of food for the embryo
Fruits evolved primarily as structures specialized to _____.
protect seeds
disperse seeds
protect pollen
provide a source of food to the plant's embryo
provide food for humans
disperse seeds
Meiosis will produce microspores in the _____. (Concept 38.1)
anther
receptacle
sepal
ovary
petal
anther
Which association below is correct? (Concept 38.1)

unisexual flowers ... dioecious
monoecious ... bisexual flowers
anther ... egg production
dioecious ... separate female and male plants
bisexual flowers ... dioecious
dioecious ... separate female and male plants
In angiosperms, each pollen grain produces two sperm. What do these sperm do? (Concept 38.1)

One fertilizes an egg, and the other fertilizes the fruit.
Each one fertilizes a separate egg cell.
One fertilizes an egg, and the other is kept in reserve.
Both sperm fertilize a single egg cell.
One fertilizes an egg, and the other combines with a cell that develops into stored food.
One fertilizes an egg, and the other combines with a cell that develops into stored food.
The germination of seeds _____. (Concept 38.1)

depends on maturation of the embryo
depends on the growth of the embryo rupturing the seed
results in the cotyledon being the first structure to emerge from the seed
occurs after a certain species-specific period of time
depends on imbibition
depends on imbibition
Which of the following is a method of vegetative reproduction? (Concept 38.2)
stump sprouts
cuttings
fragmentation
apomixes
All of the above.
All of the above.
Which of the following is an advantage of asexual reproduction in plants? (Concept 38.2)
Seed dispersal
No need for a pollinator
More robust offspring
Genetic variation
Both of the following are correct: No need for a pollinator; More robust offspring.
Both of the following are correct: No need for a pollinator; More robust offspring.
Self-incompatibility _____. (Concept 38.2)

is based on the same mechanism of transplant rejection seen in animals
works the same way in all plants
maintains variation
does not have potential agricultural applications
is the rejection of a graft by a plant
maintains variation
In grafting, the plant that provides the root system is the _____ and the twig is the _____. (Concept 38.2)
hypocotyl ... epicotyl
gene donor ... gene recipient
radicle ... scion
stock ... scion
callus ... protoplast
stock ... scion
Which of the following is a possible advantage of biofuels? (Concept 38.3)

The amount of energy used to produce biofuels will be more than they yield.
The CO2 produced by biofuels will be absorbed by the crops used to produce them, creating a carbon-neutral cycle.
They will not produce any greenhouse gas emissions.
The CO2 produced by biofuels can be pumped into depleted oil and natural gas fields, effectively sequestering the carbon.
All of the above.
The CO2 produced by biofuels will be absorbed by the crops used to produce them, creating a carbon-neutral cycle.
Which example below is a concern related to the debate over plant biotechnology? (Concept 38.3)

introduced genes leading to the creation of "superweeds"
human health issues (such as allergies) associated with transgenic crops
novel organisms will be introduced into the biosphere
effects on nontarget organisms, such as insects that feed on nearby plants
All of the above.
All of the above.
Evergreen trees lose their leaves _____.
every fall
in the spring
in the summer
steadily all year
every winter
steadily all year
The breakdown of chlorophyll reveals the _____ pigments of a leaf.
melanin
xanthophylls
anthocyanin
carotenoid
phycoerythrin
carotenoid
The formation of the abscission layer cuts off transport of substances to and from the leaf. As the concentration of sugar trapped within a leaf increases, _____ pigments are produced.
xanthophyll
anthocyanin
carotenoid
phycoerythrin
melanin
anthocyanin
The protective layer that forms between the abscission layer and the stem consists of _____.

densely colored cells filled with a waxy layer
weak, colorless, thin-walled cells
mycorrhizae
a layer of green palisade cells
irregularly shaped cells with very thick, lignified secondary walls
densely colored cells filled with a waxy layer
After leaf abscission, growth will resume from the _____.
protective layer
palisade layer
petiole
abscission layer
axillary bud
axillary bud
_____ trees lose their leaves in preparation for winter.
Spruce
Conifer
Deciduous
Pine
Fir
Deciduous