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28 terms

science 19

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prokaryote
unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus
bacilli
rod shaped prokaryote
cocci
spherical prokaryotes
spirilla
spiral and corkscrew-shaped prokaryotes
chemoheterotroph
An organism that must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon.
photoheterotroph
organism that is photosynthetic but needs organic compounds as a carbon source
photoautotroph
organism that uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds
chemoautotroph
organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions
obligate aerobes
prokaryotes that need oxygen to live
obligate anaerobes
organisms that cannot live where molecular oxygen is present
facultative anaerobes
can live with or without oxygen
binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
conjugation
the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined
endospore
type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm
nitrogen fixation
the process of changing free nitrogen gas into a usable form for plants
virus
particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells
capsid
protein coat of a virus
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
lytic infection
process in which a virus enters a cell, makes a copy of itself, and causes the cell to burst
lysogenic infection
process by which a virus embeds its DNA into the DNA of the host cell and is replicated along with the host cell's DNA
prophage
the viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA
retrovirus
virus that contains RNA as its genetic information
pathogen
disease-causing agent
vaccine
a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens
antibiotic
compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria
viroid
single-stranded RNA molecule that has no surrounding capsids
prion
infectious particles composed of protein with no nucleic acid (no DNA or RNA)
cyanobacteria
bacteria that contain chlorophyll a belong to this group