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unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus


rod shaped prokaryote


spherical prokaryotes


spiral and corkscrew-shaped prokaryotes


An organism that must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon.


organism that is photosynthetic but needs organic compounds as a carbon source


organism that uses energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds


organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions

obligate aerobes

prokaryotes that need oxygen to live

obligate anaerobes

organisms that cannot live where molecular oxygen is present

facultative anaerobes

can live with or without oxygen

binary fission

a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size


the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined


type of spore formed when a bacterium produces a thick internal wall that encloses its DNA and a portion of its cytoplasm

nitrogen fixation

the process of changing free nitrogen gas into a usable form for plants


particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells


protein coat of a virus


virus that infects bacteria

lytic infection

process in which a virus enters a cell, makes a copy of itself, and causes the cell to burst

lysogenic infection

process by which a virus embeds its DNA into the DNA of the host cell and is replicated along with the host cell's DNA


the viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA


virus that contains RNA as its genetic information


disease-causing agent


a preparation of weakened or killed pathogens


compound that blocks the growth and reproduction of bacteria


single-stranded RNA molecule that has no surrounding capsids


infectious particles composed of protein with no nucleic acid (no DNA or RNA)


bacteria that contain chlorophyll a belong to this group

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