Med-Surge C53-55

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Terms in this set (...)

What does "in situ" mean?
Localized malignancy is referred to as carcinoma in situ
If untreated invades other areas of uterus and adjacent tissue
What is the benefit of Gardasil?
HPV vaccine that helps protect againts (Not prevent) the 4 types of HPV. Girls and you women ages 9-26
What aids in the diagnosis of PMS?
Menstrual diary
Menorrhagia
Menstruation longer than 7 days
Treatment of menorrhagia?
Hormones (Contraceptives)
NSAIDs
What is the complication of DES exposure in utero?
Birth defects and cervical cancer
Candida albicans
Curly white thick discharge, strong odor, burning with urination
A major vaginal infection, cottage cheese like
Trichomonas vaginalis
Yellow white foamy discharge, severe itching
A major vaginal infection
Gardnereall vaginalis
Grey white watery fishy smelly discharge that increases after intercourse
A major vaginal infection
What is the treatment of vaginitis?
Frequent sitz baths
What are the causes of toxic shock syndrome?
Virulent bacteria production with no immunologic defense
What are the risks of toxic shock syndrome?
Superabsorbent tampons, changed infrequently
S&S of endometriosis?
Symptoms increase with menstrual cycle, severe dysmenorrhea, copious menstrual bleeding, chocolate cyst formation.
What are the long-term complications of endometriosis?
Results in adhesions, sterility
What is the tx of endometriosis?
Natural/surgical menopause (Sterilization) cyst removal
What are the complications of Pelvic inflammatory disease?
Future infertility
S&S of polycystic ovarian syndrome?
HTN, hyperlipidemia, increased facial hair, darkened skin, irregular periods, infertility, weight gain, produce excess insulin
Tx of polycystic ovarian syndrome?
Oral contraceptives, surgery
What puts a woman at risk for osteoporosis?
Hormone loss of menopause
Tx of osteoporosis?
Meds like Boniva (Brophosphate) to increase calcium absorption- hard on the stomach, need to drink lots of water with them
What are the risks of HRT (Hormone replacement)?
Breast cancer (Use with caution if family hx)
Stroke, Vaginal dryness, hot flashes
What is the treatment for HRT (hormone replacement)?
Biphosphonates
Panhysterectomy
Removal of the uterus (Still have ovaries)
Still have menopause symptoms
What can post-menopausal bleeding mean?
Sign of endometrial cancer
Suddenly bleeding, not normal
What is the best screening tool for breast malignancies?
Self-breast exam
Mammogram
How can the menstrual cycle affect breast tissue?
Swelling and makes the breast become tender
What are the risks of breast cancer?
Defective gene (Presence of BRCA-1)<< Biggest factor
Female >50 years of age
What are the Best diagnostic tools for breast cancer?
Mammography, biopsy, ultrasound
What are the txs for breast cancer?
Depends on tumor staging
Surgery
Chemo
Radiation
Common drug is Adriamycin
What is the major side effect for the tx drug (Adriamycin) for breast cancer?
Alopecia
Senitinel node biopsy
Surgical procedure used to determine if cancer has spread beyond a primary tumor into your lymphatic system.
Used most commonly in evaluating breast cancer and melanoma.
Sentinel nodes
Are the 1st few lymph nodes into which tumor drains.
They test the nodes to see if they have cancer, Remove others in that area if they come back malignant
What can the staging of cancer indicate with senitenel nodes?
Stage 4 (IV) is metastic and typically has a poor outcome
What are the complications of surgical breast cancer?
Lymphedema which is the tx
What are the S&S of lymphedema?
Swelling in arm, pain, heaviness, tightness, restricted ROM, Infections, fibrosis
Fibrocystic breast disease
Benign breast cysts
What are the symptoms of fibrocystic breast disease?
Tender painful breasts, multiple lumps, mastalgia, hormonal influence
What makes fibrocystic breast disease worse?
Exacerbated by caffeine and nicotine
How to prevent mastitis?
Empty the breasts after each feeding
What is the organism that causes mastitis?
Staphylococcus aureus
Mastopexy
Breast lift
Corrects sagging, low nipple placement
Prostate cancer lab values?
PSA (greater than 4 or significant increase from previous)
Prostate cancer staging information?
Stage 4 (IV) means invaded other tissues, its grown outside the prostate
Less than stage 4 confined in prostate
How a testicular exam should be done?
Both hands
Index and middle finger
Feel for small lump or abnormality
Locate and palpate epididymis
After warm bath/shower
What increases risk for prostate cancer?
Increased testosterone, high fat diet, family hx
What is a vasectomy?
Ligation of vas deferens, permanent sterilization
What pt teaching should be done with a vasectomy?
Use back up method until directed as procedure only henders new sperm not sperm already in the testes
What makes someone at risk for testicular cancer?
Cryptorchidism-undescended testicle
What increases early detection?
Self exam
What is the tx of forsion of the spermatic cord?
Twisted spermatic cord-artery kinked, compromised blood flow to testicle
Surgical emergency
What is the complication of not replacing the foreskin of the penis?
Phimosis or paraphimosis
Painful swelling of glans, edema, urinary retention
What is the tx for prostatis (Prostate inflammed)?
Antibiotic therapy
What is the biggest risk for male sterility?
Orchitis-Viral mumps after puberty
Large cause
WHy are nitrates such a big deal with ED meds?
Causes vasodilation, can decrease BP to nothing
BPH
Enlarged prostate
S&S of BPH?
Frequent urination, difficulty urinating, emptying bladder, nocturia
What makes BPH worse?
Antihistamines
What is a med taken for BPH and what does it do?
Flomax
Causes HTN