Environmental Science Exam 4
Terms in this set (137)
What are the major outdoor air pollution?
Smog from Industrial Sources
Photochemical Smog from Vehicles
Acid Deposition from Coal Power Plants
What are the major indoor air pollution?
Smoke and Soot from Indoor Fires
Chemicals used in Building Materials and Cleaning Processes.
Is the Earth's atmosphere warming?
What effects could the warming of earth's surface have?
Raising Sea Levels
More Extreme Weather
Changes in the Location of Plants and Animals.
How can we slow down the impacts of climate change?
Cut Energy Waste
Rely on More Renewable and Green Energy Sources
By improving energy production, will money be lost?
No, It will still save money, but create less greenhouse gasses.
What are two negatives of burning waste?
Greenhouse Gas Emmisions
What are two negatives of burying waste?
What are some perks of using the 4R's?
Decrease in Consumption of Resources
Reduce Natural Capital Degradation
What should we do with waste?
Reuse or Recycle
Convert to Less Hazardous Materials
Safely Store What is Left
How can we use resources more sustainably?
Subsidize Environmentally Beneficial Goods and Services
Tax Pollution and Waste
How can we live more sustainably?
Become Environmentally Literate
Learn from Nature
Living more Simply and Lightly
Become Active Envrionmental Citizens
What is a Primary Pollutant?
A pollutant in its original form
What is a Secondary Pollutant?
A pollutant that has been changed into a different pollutant through a chemical process.
What are the 6 types of air pollutants (a.k.a the big 6)?
Explain the creation process of Ozone.
The UV light of the sun splits the natural dual of an oxygen molecule and breaks it up. Then one of the single oxygen pair will a double oxygen creating ozone.
What is Climate Change?
The change of the climate
What is the Tipping Point?
The point of no return. The point in which the amount of greenhouse gasses in our atmosphere will be to much to the point at which the atmospheric changes will be unrecoverable.
What is the Carbon Dioxide number in ppm for the Tipping Point?
What is Carbon Capture and Storage?
The process of removing the carbon dioxide from coal combustion and storing it in a place where it could never be released into the atmosphere.
What is incineration?
What is chemical cycling?
The cyclation of chemicals in the environment.
What are the two inner layers of the Earth's atmosphere?
What layer of the atmosphere contains the ozone layer?
What three tools help to clean up air pollution?
What is the best solution to air pollution?
To prevent it
What should the three steps to air pollution be?
Reuse and recycle what we do use
Safely despose of the rest
Is human economics considered a biosphere of Earth?
What was the Clean Air Act?
A piece of legislation that mandated companies to follow rules to produce less air pollution.
Explain the Cap and Trade system?
Puts a limit on the amount of air pollution that can be produced by a company, any of the big 6, and gradually decreases that number. If a company goes over that amount they can either pay heavy taxes or trade with another company for some of their cap.
What are the 4R's?
What is Natural Capital?
The resources provided by the environment.
What is Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development?
An approach to economics that takes a more sustainable way.
What effect does the reduction of ozone have on the Earth's surface?
More UV light is allowed in, thus warming the Earth.
How can we reduce the depletion of ozone?
By banning the use of ozone reducing chemicals.
What are the three different environmental views?
What is the Chapman Cycle?
The cycle that explains the creation of ozone.
What are CFC's?
Chlorofluorocarbons, harmful to ozone
What is the Great Pacific Garbage Patch?
A large patch of garbage, mainly plastic,that is gathered in an area of the Pacific Ocean. The water on the outside moves faster trapping trash inside.
What are Micro-Plastics?
Tiny pieces of plastic, ones that had been previously broken down to a very small size.
What is a Human Centered view?
A view that humans are the most important thing on earth and that their needs should be a top priority
What is a Life Centered viewpoint?
A view that all life forms are equally important and that all life needs should be provided.
What is a Earth Centered viewpoint?
A view that the earth needs to be looked after. That everything on Earth from rocks to humans have equal importance.
What is GPI?
Genuine Progress Indicator, GDP but with the environmental aspects taken into consideration.
What is GDP?
Gross Domestic Product, the market value of all goods and services, the economic point of view.
What is the root cause of food insecurity?
The process of splitting uranium-238 into smaller isotopes is referred to as a ____________ reaction?
Alley cropping, agroforestry and terracing are all methods that help reduce_______.
A _______ disease, like most cancers, is not caused by a living organism and does not spread from one person to another.
What is a water resource that can be considered nonrenewable?
A(n) _____ contains a large enough concentration of a particular mineral to make it profitable for mining and processing.
A(n) _______ forms when a preexisting rock is subjected to high temperatures, high pressures, chemically active fluids, or a combination of these agents.
Approximately 70% of the water withdrawn worldwide each year is used for________.
Irrigation of croplands and raising livestock
What is an example of point source pollution?
Offshore oil wells
The majority of the oil pollution of the ocean comes from _______.
Runoff from land
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogen mimic used in the production of _______products.
Unlined landfills, household chemicals, mining refuse and industrial discharges
What part of the mantle is the volume of hot, partly melted rock that flows?
For good health and protection against disease, people need a fairly large amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats that are often called ________.
The immune system consists of specialized cells and tissues that protect the body against disease and harmful substances by forming __________.
Where do the majority of earthquakes and volcanoes occur?
Along the edge of plate boundaries.
Freshwater that is used indirectly is called_______, which is the freshwater that is not directly consumed but is used to produce food and other products.
The world is not about to run out of oil because we can rely more on unconventional heavy oil from depleted oil wells and other sources. However, these sources of oil will likely result in ________, higher environmental impacts, higher production costs, and higher oil prices.
Lower net energy yields
Compared to synthetic pesticides, the use of natural biological pest controls are __________.
What resource is used to generate about 40% of the electricity generated in the United States in 2013?
How are spent nuclear fuel rods stored immediately after they are removed from the reactor core?
They are stored in a deep pool of water contained in a steel-lined concrete basin for cooling.
Single cell organisms that are found everywhere and can multiply rapidly on their own are called ______.
Why do our economic systems promote unsustainable forms of industrialized agriculture?
The harmful environmental and health costs of food production are not reflected in market prices.
What type of toxic agent can harm or cause birth defects in a fetus or embryo?
Which of the following source of energy is considered to be nonrenewable? Biomass, Geothermal, Solar, Hydropower, Nuclear?
You are n aquatic biologist studying a small lake. The stream that drains into this lake runs by croplands. You are detecting a pesticide called atrazine in the insects and worms that live in the lake. The predatory birds such as herons and egrets have very high concentrations of atrazine in their blood. The birds prey on the frogs and small fish. What condition best explains the high atrazine level in the bird?
Biological accumulation and magnification
What is a chemical's median lethal dose?
This is the dose that can kill 50% of the animals in a test population within a given time period
What is an example of non-point source pollution?
Drain pipes, oil wells, golf courses, underground mines, sewage treatment plants?
How would decreasing human reliability while maintaining the same level of technological reliability affect the system reliability?
The system reliability would decrease
What has brought about what some experts are calling a new era of oil and natural gas production in the United States?
Horizontal Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing
It is estimated that 1 pound of uranium-238 can produce the same amount of energy as 1 million gallons of crude oil, with significantly less greenhouse gas emissions. Use net-energy yield to explain why crude oil and coal are still our primary sources of energy compared to nuclear energy.
Nuclear has less net energy yield, more processes.
"Modern industrialized agriculture has a greater harmful impact on the environment than any other human activity." Explain how these impacts relate to HIPPCO and the carbon cycle.
Habitat (needs room)
Invasive Species (Pushing species out, integrating new farm species)
Population (More people means more farms)
Climate Change (Cow farms)
Over exploitation (Overuse of nutrients)
Carbon Cycle (Farming technologies, slash and burn, burning of fields, etc.)
Eutrophacation is a term given to a nutrient rich lake that can cause dense growth or blooms of algae. Cultural eutrophication is when human activities accelerate the eutrophication of a lake. How does cultural eutrophication occur and is this an example of a point source or a nonpoint source pollution?
Run-off of fertilizer, nonpoint source
What is the precautionary principle? Do you believe that the precautionary principle should be used? Provide at least one example to support your claim.
Evidence shows something may be causing problems so test are done to ensure it is not causing harm. Yes, BPA.
an acronym to summarize the direct cause of extinction resulting from human activities
Recent genetic research indicates that ______ or more individuals are needed for an endangered species to maintain it's capacity for biological evolution.
Many species and ecosystems provide ________ that we depend upon for industrial and basic living needs.
The current rate or extinction is ____ compared to the rate that existed before humans arrives on the earth.
up to 1,000 time higher
Which of the following implied the greatest built-in momentum for population growth?
a large number of people under age 15
The average number of children born to women in a population during their reproductive years is the _______.
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
Age structure diagrams are useful for predicting what?
Various plant species provide value as food crops, fuel wood,lumber, and paper from trees,and useful scientific knowledge. What terms best describes this type of value.
A forest that is known for its year-round uniformly warm temperature and high moisture is the _________.
________ is a set of physical conditions of the lower atmosphere, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and other factors, in a given area of a period of hours or days. While ____________ is the general pattern of atmospheric conditions in a given area over periods ranging from at least three decades to thousands of years.
One reason birth and fertility rates in more-developed countries tend to be lower is that _______.
The cost of raising and educating children is much higher
Ocean acidification is occurring because ________.
The ocean absorbs about 25% of the carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by human activities.
The greatest threat to most species is ______.
Loss of habitiat
To keep human population constant, the global total fertility rate would have to equal _________.
Which common problem of U.S. cities is now an issue in U.S. national parks?
Aquatic life zones are the aquatic equivalents of _________ on land.
What HIPPCO activity is the main threat to the beaches where endangered sea turtles breed?
Which types of forest naturally develops after the trees in an area have been removed by human activities such as clear-cutting for timber or conversion to cropland, or by natural forces such as fires and hurricanes?
One advantage of buses in cities is that they _______.
Reduce car use
The wolf reintroduction was based partly on its importance as a(n) ______.
The area of ocean needed to sustain the consumption of fish for an average person, nation, or the world is called a(n) _______.
Olf growth forests are also known as _______________.
The population of a country will decline if its age structure diagram_________.
Is wider at the top than at the bottom
Much of which biome has disappeared from the earth because it has been converted into farmland for growing crops and grazing cattle?
_____________ contributes to the greenhouse effect by destroying plants that store carbon dioxide?
Burning Fossil Fuels
Surface-level ocean currents are caused by ____________.
Prevailing winds blowing over the ocean surface and the Coriolis effect.
One reason protecting marine biodiversity is difficult is that ________.
Much of the damage to the oceans and other bodies of water is not visible to most people.
Areas especially rich in highly endangered species that are found nowhere else can be described as ___________.
Ecosystem hot spots
You are installing solar collectors on the roof of your home to cut your use of propane gas that heats both your hot water tank and theliving spaces in your home. In doing so, you are using a(n) _________ resource rather than a(n) _________ resource.
Which of the following is not an example of an k-selected species.
A thermostat set to 62 degrees F turns on the furnaces when a house cools below that temperature, and shifts the furnace off when a house warms above that temperature. this is an example of a simple ________.
Negative feedback loop
Which process best illustrates an ecosystem service?
The most common gas in the atmosphere is _______.
All organic compounds are characterized by the presence of ________.
The IPAT model calculates the environmental impact of human activities based on _____________.
population size, affluence, and technology
Which of the following organisms can be called autotrophs?
Daisies, roses, and grass
A group of organisms with a unique set of characteristics that distinguish it from other groups of organisms is called a(n) __________.
An example of potential energy is __________.
The chemical energy in a candy bar
What is one environmental benefit of affluence?
Increased wealth provides resources to apply toward the creation of environmentally beneficial technologies
______________ is the variety of processes such as energy flow and matter cycling that occur within ecosystems as species interact with one another in food webs.
Which characteristic must be true in order for a trait to be impacted by the forces of natural selection and then play a role in the process of biological evolution?
The trait must be genetically based
The role a species plays in its ecosystem is its _______.
Many economists propose finding ways to include the harmful environmental and health costs of producing and using goods and services in their market prices. What is this practice called?
A positive feedback loop does what?
Increases a change into a system
These species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem are _______.
An organism can be described as a tertiary consumer if it eats _______________.
Herbivores and Carnivores
Oil is a(n) ________.
Nonrenewable resource because it cannot be formed on a human time scale
Ozone a gas that filters out harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is found in the _____________.
A relationship in which one species benegits while the other is neither helped nor harmed to any significant degree best illustrates _______________.
Species with broad niches are described as _____ species.
A relationship in which both species benefit best illustrates _________.
Humans evolved from ______.
A common ancestor shared with apes and monkeys
Which of the following best represents the process of photosythesis?
Carbon dioxide + Water + Solar Energy --> Biomass + Oxygen
An intertidal species of sea star helps to maintain the diversity of the internal region by controlling the mussel population. Without the sea star, the mussel population would crowd out other species and take over their territory. The sea star could be called a(n) _________.
Which organism would best described as a specialist species?
Flies, Cockroaches, Dear, Panda bears, humans?
tapeworms live inside and may harm their hostss by drawing nousrishment from them. This interaction is an example of _______.
In a certain population of rabbits one year, 25 new rabbits are born and 5 move into the population from surrounding areas. However, 10 rabbits die, and 5 leave the population. What is the population change?
A community of different species is interaction with one another and with their nonliving (aboitic) environment of matter and energy is called a(n) __________.
______________ is the variety of processes such as energy flow and matter cycling that occur within ecosystems as species interact with one another in food webs.