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PSC154 Midterm 2
Terms in this set (134)
1. What two qualities are most central to any lasting happiness?
Compassion and generosity
2. Why is a healthy perspective the key to joy and happiness?
The way we see the world is the way we experience the world.
3. In what ways can a tragedy become an opportunity?
By looking at it from a different angle.
4. What is our ultimate freedom, according to Dr. Viktor Frankl?
Our perspective toward life.
5. What is meant by the terms, wider perspective and larger perspective?
Stepping back within our own mind, to look at the bigger picture and to move beyond our limited self-awareness and limited self-interest.
6. How does a wider perspective help us overcome our default perspective?
We recognize that our limited perspective is not the truth. We can even see our role in any conflict or misunderstanding.
7. What is research evidence that being self-focused makes us unhappy?
Larry Scherwitz found that people who more frequently said I, me or mine had a higher risk for having a heart attack and that heart attack being fatal
8. Why do surprising or unexpected happenings open the door to humility?
9. How does humility reduce anxiety?
10. Why is the cultivation of humility important for joy?
When we have a wider perspective, we have a natural understanding of our place in the great sweep of all that was, is and will be. This naturally leads to humility.
11. What is the origin of the word, humility?
Humus, Latin word for earth or soil.
12. In what ways is humility strengthened by a spiritual perspective?
Humility is the recognition that our gifts are from God. It lets you sit relatively loosely to those gifts and humility allows us to to celebrate gifts from others but does not mean you have to deny your own gifts or shrink from using them.
13. Why did the Dalai Lama say that the recognition of limitation and weakness can be positive?
This can be wisdom. If you realize you are inadequate in some way, then you develop effort. You wont do that if you think everything is fine and you are okay with yourself.
14. What is the role of humor and laughter in the cultivation of joy?
It is much better when there is not too much seriousness
15. What do you think of the idea that humor can defuse tense situations? Have you experienced that personally?
16. There are many types of humor. Which type is constructive, and which type is destructive?
If you are able to downgrade yourself, and get others to laugh at you without feeling guilty. It is not demeaning, or feel demeaning.
17. What quote represents the Dalai Lama's approach to life?
Why be unhappy about something if it can be remedied? And what is the use of being unhappy if it cannot be remedied?
18. What is acceptance, and how is it a key to living in joy?
19. In what way is acceptance the opposite of giving up and giving in?
When we accept we forgive and release the desire for a different past
20. How does acceptance counter the tendency to react to circumstances?
Acceptance is the sword that cuts all through all of this resistance allowing us to relax, to see clearly and to respond appropriately.
21. What does it mean to "be present in each moment?"
The ability to accept vulnerability, discomfort and anxiety of everyday life.
22. In what ways is acceptance active, not passive?
23. How can we pursue goals but not be attached to the outcome?
Peace and equanimity come from letting go of our attachment to the goal and the method.
24. What is the Tibetan practice of tonglen?
The practice of taking and giving.
25. How does the Dalai Lama define forgiveness?
It does not mean we forget. You should remember the negative thing,but because there is a possibility to develop hatred, we mustn't allow ourselves to be led in that direction—we chose forgiveness.
26. In what ways does forgiveness allow liberation and freedom?
Without forgiveness we remain tethered to the person who harmed us, the person will hold the keys to our happiness. We need to forgive the person who harmed us, or they will hold the key to our happiness.
27. What is evidence that humans have impulses for both revenge and forgiveness?
Psychologists Daly and Wilson studied sixty different cultures around the world, 95 percent had some form of blood revenge. 93 percent also displayed some examples of forgiveness. Forgiveness may be so common it is taken for granted the other 7% of the time
28. What are the emotional and physical effects of unforgiveness?
Unforgiveness leads to ongoing feelings of resentment, anger, hostility, and hatred that can be extremely destructive.
29. What is the link between gratitude and a sense of wonder?
The ability to see wonder, surprise, possibility in each experience and each encounter that is a core aspect of joy.
30. How can gratitude represent a shift in perspective?
Where some people see the glass half empty, you can see the glass half full.
31. What is the connection between gratitude and enjoyment?
Gratitude is the elevation of enjoyment, the ennobling of enjoyment. Gratititude is one of the key dimensions that Ekman lists in his definition of joy.
32. According the Brother David Steindl-Rast, how does gratitude relate to happiness?
It is gratefulness that makes us happy.
33. How or why can one be grateful for their enemies?
Often in Buddhism called our most precious spiritual teachers. They help us develop our spiritual practice and to cultivate equanimity even in face of adversity.
34. In what ways is Anthony Ray Hinton an example of a person can respond with joy despite life circumstances?
He spent 30 years on death row for a crime he did not commit. He was told by officers he was being arrested because he is black. He says one does not know the value of freedom until one has it taken away. He is not angry at the people who arrested him anymore, because if he remains angry it means they will not just take 30 years, but his entire life.
35. What is the connection between gratitude and fear?
When you are grateful you are not fearful and when you are not fearful you are not violent. When you are grateful you act out of a sense of enough and not out of a sense of scarcity and are willing to share
36. In what ways is gratitude a connective attitude?
A journey of Ubuntu, acknowledging all of the connections that bind us together.
37. Does gratitude lead to complacency or passivity?
38. Is gratitude motivating or demotivating? Evidence?
It is motivating. Those who focus on gratitude were more likely to focus and make progress on their personal goals.
39. What are some findings indicating that gratitude affects the brain's neurochemistry?
Gratitude may stimulate the hypothalamus which is involved in regulating stress in the brain, as well as the ventral tegmental region, which is part of the reward circuits that produce pleasure in the brain. Smiling can even trigger positive emotions.
40. How can an attitude of gratitude help us confront the reality of the impermanence of life?
Gratitude helps us catalog, celebrate, and rejoice in each day and each moment before they slip through the vanishing hourglass of experience.
What are the two factors that have driven the "global gratitude renaissance?"
The mounting evidence demonstrating gratitude matters. Second, is the practice of gratitude is readily assessable, available to everyone.
What does living gratefully begin with?
Affirming the good and recognizing its sources.
What are the two stages of information processing that gratitude emerges from?
Affirmation and recognition.
What are the recognitions involved in feeling grateful?
We recognize the source of goodness is outside of ourselves.
What are the characteristics of a gift?
Unearned things we are not owed by the giver nor entitled to.
Why does the author refer to gratitude as "the quintessential positive trait?"
It's the amplifier of goodness in oneself, the world, and others, and as having the unique ability to heal, energize and change lives.
What is meant by the phrase, "what flows through the mind sculpts the brain?"
The mind can change the brain in lasting ways.
How is the substantia nigra/ventral segmental area of the brain involved in gratitude?
This area of the brain links memory and learning centres, so keeping your gratitudes fresh and new will be cognitively and neutrally beneficial.
9. What other brain structures appear to be involved when gratitude is experienced?
The mid brain??? Memory and learning centres.
10. What does "ARC" in the ARC model of gratitude stand for?
Amplifies, rescues and connects.
11. What does gratitude amplify?
The good we see in ourself, others and the world.
12. What is meant by the concept "Pronoia?"
The concept that others are conspiring to help us.
13. How can gratitude help rescue us from the negativity bias?
It gets us back on track to contentment and inner peace.
14. Explain how gratitude connects.
Moral cement, strengthens and solidifying relationships between people.
16. What are 3 ways in which a grateful focus can rescue us from anxiety?
Switching your focus to other people, focus on what you received, acknowledging emotions you feel, do not compare yourself to others, don't be envious orlive a life of regret, do not isolate yourself from others.
17. What are the three questions that constitute the meditation technique of Naikan?
What have I received? What have I given? How have I caused difficulty for others?
18. What is the key to an effective gratitude practice?
19. Why is the three good things exercise effective in cultivating gratitude?
Sharing our victories, large or small, help us celebrate our gratitude .
20. What is meant by the term, grateful recounting?
The road to living a life of gratefulness and appreciation is not simply a matter of repeating positive affirmations or conjuring up grateful feelings, but rather it is a way of perceiving the countless ways we are blessed and supported as we go about our daily lives.
21. Give an example of when you used a downward comparison to feel better about a situation or circumstance.
I had not been feeling well the week I had two midterms, but am blessed because there are people so sick and in the hospital
22. How does the language that grateful and less grateful people use reflect their attitudes?
Grateful people freely use words such as gifts,givers, blessings,fortunate, fortune and abundance, Less grateful people are preoccupied with burdens, curses, deprivations and complaints.
23. What is the "George Bailey effect?" Give an example of it from your own life.
When George is on the brink of suicide he is forced to see what would have happened had he never been born. He realizes it's precious and his life is cured.
Responses to Stress
Fear: response to an external source
Anxiety: can be present without external source; uncontrollable/unavoidable threats
Worry: the most common form of anxiety
6 basic emotions
Underestimate resources for coping with threats and meeting opportunities
Increases the negative
Decreases the positive
Anxiety is a feeling of apprehension or fear. The source of this uneasiness is not always known or recognized, which can add to the distress you feel.
Anxiety disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that involve excessive anxiety.
types of anxiety disorders
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Fears are not random
Fears vary with personal and social factors
Acute and chronic fears
Objects of fear: situations, people, self
Common anxiety provoking social situations include:
talking with people in authority
dating and developing close relationships
making a phone call or answering the phone
attending and participating in class
speaking with strangers
meeting new people
eating, drinking, or writing in public
using public bathrooms
The "what-if" emotion
FEAR: False Evaluation of Actual Reality
worry: the cognitive core
Repetitive and non-productive thought
That does not resolve the situation or arrive at a solution
Why do we worry?
1.Believe worrying can prevent negative outcomes from happening, avoiding disappointment, or provide distraction from thinking about things that are even worse (prevent negative)
2. Believe worrying has positive effects such as finding a better way of doing things, increasing control, and finding solutions. (increase positive)
the stressfulness of uncertainty
Focus on the immediate
Lack of structure
worrying about worrying
You can make yourself even more miserable by thinking that you are the only one in the world who worries about the things you worry about.
Accept that worrying is just a normal part of life and everyone does it
key to mental immunity
developing psychological immunity
the undoing of worrying
Pick one aspect of your life that is causing you anxiety or worry
Cultivate gratitude for that aspect
See it as a gift, an opportunity, something that contributes to your growth
What is anger
Anger is an emotion that ranges from mild irritation, to intense fury and rage.
Aggression is behavior that is intended to cause harm or injury to another person or damage to property.
Hostility is a set of attitudes and judgments that motivate aggressive behavior.
Why do we get angry?
Anger is associated with frustration, negative emotions, or poor communication or misunderstandings.
What is an emotion?
What does anger do to the body?
adrenaline and other chemicals pour into the blood stream:
The heart pumps faster
blood pressure rises
Change your environment
Reducing destructive thoughts and feelings;
Amplifying positive thoughts and feelings
A matter of timing
Which is the biggest obstacle to your joy?
Reducing destructive thoughts and feelings;
Amplifying positive thoughts and feelings
A matter of timing
What is an emotion?
1. Subjective feeling
2. Physiological arousal
3. Expressive behavior
Thought precedes the feeling
Cognition to emotion
Emotional experience to bodily changes
See something scary to we are afraid
William James Carl Theory
Emotion doesn't go from the inside out, but from the outside in
The movement of the body (arousal, expressive behavior) lead the way
We do not run because we are afraid, we are afraid because we run
Facial feedback hypothesis
Facial expressions "feed" information back to the brain, influencing emotions positively or negatively
Voluntary contraction of facial muscles into smile or frown can induce happiness/sadness
If you smile (or frown), you feel happier (or sadder)
A person's face turns her pre-existing feelings up or down
Movements of the face influence emotions, without the conscious mind
Emotion goes from the outside in
What if they could measure the effect of smiles more secretly?
What if facial muscles were altered permanently? Better living through facial paralysis?
1. Depression in 8/10patients when OBA was injected into frown muscles.
2. Placebo controlled experimental trial (RCT) depression scores reduced by 47% given OBA and in 21% of those given placebo.
Botox improves depression?
Body posture affects mood.
"The upright participants reported feeling more enthusiastic, excited, and strong, while the slumped participants reported feeling more fearful, hostile, nervous, quiet, still, passive, dull, sleepy, and sluggish."
Emotional experience can be generated by changes in and awareness of our own bodily states
Embodied cognition: muscular and autonomic states influence felt emotions
How can we arrange our muscles affects how we feel about ourselves
obstacles to joy
Stress & fear
Frustration & anger
Sadness & grief
Suffering and adversity
Illness & fear of death
sadness vs depression
A normal human emotion
Usually triggered by a difficult, hurtful, challenging, or disappointing event, experience, or situation (episodic)
When that something changes, when we've adjusted or gotten over the loss or disappointment, our sadness remits
loneliness vs being alone
"We are often alone without feeling lonely and feel lonely when we are not alone...the psychological experience of loneliness is quite different from the physical experience of being alone. We can feel joy when we are alone but not when we are lonely."
loneliness is a chronic source of stress
Chronically lonely have higher stress hormone levels
Impaired restorative processes
becoming mentally immune to loneliness
"Much depends on your attitude. If you are filled with negative judgment and anger, then you will feel separate from other people. But if you have an open heart and are filled with trust and friendship...you will never feel lonely."
hope vs optimism
The antidote to despair
Hope is different from optimism
Not based on circumstances
hope as the antidote to despair
"Hope is much deeper than optimism...it is not based on the ephemerality of feelings but on the firm ground of conviction...hope is deeper and very, very close to unshakeable."
What forgiving is not:
It is not forgetting the pain
It is not condoning or excusing
It is not minimizing/denying hurt
It is not (necessarily) reconciling.
Letting go of negative emotions (e.g. anger, hostility, resentment)
Letting go of negative cognitions (e.g. thoughts of revenge)
Letting go of negative behavior (e.g. verbal aggression) in response to an injustice, and may also involve responding positively (compassion & mercy) toward the offender
Research has shown that there are:
__________ to forgiveness
forgiveness is not easy:
"(to forgive) is one of the hardest things in the world to do and is one of the greatest of human achievements
Why do you think it is difficult to forgive those who hurt you?
A psychologist said the following: "When you refuse to forgive, you are giving the person who walloped you the privilege of hurting you all over again—in your memory." Do you agree or disagree? Why or why not?
forgiveness in the general population:
Try to Forgive 48%
Try to Overlook It 45%
Hold Onto Resentment 14%
Try to Get Even 8%
the dual nature of forgiveness
Otherworldly, transcendent, spiritual:
"to forgive is divine"
Worldly, common, material:
"to forgive is human"
forgiveness is linked to mercy:
The withholding of a consequence for an offense or wrongdoing
"The inclination of the judgment toward leniency in selecting penalties" (Nussbaum, 2001, p. 365)
Reduction of punishment rather than erasure of the offense
1. Effects of partner forgiveness on romantic break-ups over time
1. I can let go of my anger toward my partner.
3. When I think of my partner who treated me with contempt, I feel a surge of hatred.
4. When I remember the harm done to me, I feel a desire for revenge.
7. I contemplate getting even with my partner.
9. I cannot forgive my partner.
2. I can accept my partner who harmed me in the past.
5. I will forgive my partner if he or she asks me to.
8. It is tough for me to forgive my partner who treated me badly.
10. Eventually, I will regard even my partner who harmed me as a good person.
forgiveness in romantic couples:
Forgiveness was significantly associated with a low risk of break-up 10 months later (1/3 broke up)
Intact couples had 25% higher benevolence and 31% lower unforgivingness
Forgiving a partner is an important factor in maintaining romantic relationships
Which forgiveness motivations are the best?
After recalling interpersonal offenses, undergraduates were assigned to a control condition or one emphasizing a forgiveness motivation:
1) personal benefit, 2) moral obligation, or 3) goodwill.
All three forgiveness conditions facilitated forgiveness, but the goodwill condition was most effective.
ABC's of forgiveness:
Acknowledge anger and hurt.
Bar revenge thoughts.
Consider offender's perspective.
Decide to accept the hurt.
Extend compassion and goodwill.
Psychological effects of unforgiveness:
Greater levels of anxiety, depression, anger, hostility, relational conflict ,loneliness, ruminations
4. Granting Forgiveness or Harboring Grudges: Implications for Physiology, Emotions and Health
2 unforgiving, 2 forgiving responses1. Rehearsed offense2. Nursed a grudge3. Empathized with offender4. Granted forgivenessheart rate, BP, muscle tension, sweat
Forgiveness main findings:
Unforgiving thoughts produced more negative physiological arousal (stress)
Forgiveness reduced physiological arousal (stress) to remembered offenses
Chronic unforgiving responses may worsen health; forgiving responses may improve it
Perspective: There are many angles
Foundational to joy: Wider and larger perspective
Looking at a circumstance from many angles
"A healthy perspective is the foundation of joy and happiness, because the way we see the world is the way we experience the world...with our mind we create our own world." The Book of Joy, p. 194
Grateful processing can help "shut the door" on open memories
gratitude is a cognitive-socio emotion:
An inner sense or attitude of appreciation for some benefit received
Gratitude: affirming goodness and recognizing
Knowing, recognizing, remembering, acknowledging
A 3 component process:
1. We intellectually recognize the benefit.
2. We willingly acknowledge the benefit.
3. We emotionally appreciate the gift and the giver.
gratitude(Book of joy)
"Gratitude is the recognition of all that holds us in the web of life and all that has made it possible to have the life we have and the moment we are experiencing"
G>K Chesterton on Gratitude:
"Gratitude produced the most purely joyful moments that have been known to man"
"Gratitude is happiness doubled by wonder"
Participants are randomly assigned to one of the following conditions:
A gratitude group: wrote down up to 5 things in their lives for which they were grateful or thankful
A hassles group: wrote down up to 5 hassles or complaints
A control group: daily events
Participants keep journals of their moods, life appraisals, physical symptoms, and health behaviors over time
What hassles people?
Roommates are filthy animals
Having to buy Mother's Day card at the last minute
Somebody snapped the antenna off my car
People who stand with their carts in middle of aisle at the store
Running out of $ and having to ask parents for more
Girl next to me brought her son to class and all he did was make noise and I could barely hear the lecture
Having to listen to boring lecture
What blesses people?
That my in-laws live only 10 mins. away
Warmth of sun on my skin
MD removed ear wax from ear
It rained, heard we are going to be great-grandparents (again), and my checkbook balanced
My freedom living in the U.S.A.
For the skilled treatment my wife received at UCDMC
Grateful for being single because of my friend's problems
My life considering that I almost lost it because of domestic violence
relative to the other groups, the gratitude group showed benefits:
Psychological (alert, energetic, enthused)
Physical (more exercise, better sleep)
Interpersonal (more helpful and connected)
Measuring dispositional gratitude:
The GQ: "If I had to list everything that I felt grateful for, it would be a very long list"; "When I look at the world, I don't see much to be grateful for."
The GRAT: "Often I think, "What a privilege it is to be alive"; "I really don't think that I've gotten all the good things that I deserve in life."
An inner sense or attitude of appreciation for a received benefit that is intentionally given
Gratitude: affirming goodness and
recognizing the sources
Gratitude is about knowing:
To be aware
To be mindful
To pay attention
Why does gratitude work? (ARC)
1. Gratitude amplifies
2. Gratitude rescues
3. Gratitude connects
The tendency of the human mind to devalue benefit of future rewards
Grateful people required $63 immed. vs. $55 to forego $85 in 3 mos.
What does gratitude do?
Gratitude connects us all. When we are grateful for a meal, we can be grateful for the food that we are eating and for all those who made the meal possible—the farmers, the grocers, the cooks. When the Archbishop gives thanks, we are often taken on a journey of Ubuntu, acknowledging all of the connections that bind us together and on which we are all dependent.
The anatomy of gratitude:
1. Stop - awake, aware, alert2. Look - notice, observe, see3. Go - take action, do, give
Self Reflect: Naikan's 3 questions:
1. What have I received?
By my circumstances, privileges
2. What have I given?
From my talents, my abilities, my influence, my time...
3. What troubles or difficulties have I caused?
By my action...inaction
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