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Alfred E. smith

democratic nominee in 1928 presidential election

Stock market

system for buying and selling shares of companies

Bull market

long period of rising stock prices


way of buying stocks by paying only a small percent of the price of the stock and taking a loan from a stockbroker to pay the rest

Margin call

demand by a broker for the investor to repay the loan at once


buying shares, betting that the stock market will continue to climb, and then selling the stock to make money quickly

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929, that the stock market experienced its steepest dive


monthly payment made on high-cost item

Hawley Smoot Tariff

high tariff that damaged American sales abroad


court official


communities formed on unused or public lands by newly homeless people


name given to shantytowns


unemployed individual who wandered around the country

Dust bowl

dried-up lands of the great plains

Walt Disney

producer of the first feature-length animated film

soap operas

daytime radio shows that were sponsored by the makers of laundry soaps

Grant Wood

artist of the regionalist school, who emphasized traditional American values

John Steinbeck

novelist who wrote about the poverty in the Great Depression

William Faulkner

author who used the stream on consciousness technique

public works

government-financed building projects


Fenace Corporation organization set up by Congress to make loans to businesses


money that went directly to people in poverty


taken possession of by creditors

Bonus Army

a group of World War I veterans who marched on Washington to demand the payment of bonuses that Congress promised

New Deal

President Franklin D. Roosevelt's proograms for ending the Depression


a paralyzing disease

gold standard

a situation in which one ounce of gold equaled a set number of dollars

bank holiday

the closing of banks before bank runs could put them out of business

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