25 terms

chapter 18 witham

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black codes
southern laws designed to limit the rights of african americans
scalawags
scoundrels; group of poor white farmers who were some of the republican delegates to draft the new state constitutions; they went along with the radical reconstruction
carpetbaggers
white northerners who rushed to the south after the war; some were also delegates to draft the new state constitutions
-southerners felt carpetbaggers were trying to gain political or financial advantages
What was the main goal of reconstruction?
-unit states and rebuild the south
How did the freedman's bureau help southerners ?
--set up schools and hospitals for A.A
-helped reunite families separated by war or slavery
-distributed food,clothes, to southerners
Describe andrew johnson's reconstruction policies.
-he believed that the reconstruction was the presidents job, not congress
-insisted that new state government ratify the 13th amendment-which prohibited slavery
-insisted that they accept the supreme power of the federal government
-his policies were based on lincolns
who were the radical republicans and what did they do in congress to try to bring about equality for african americans
-passed a law giving A.A full citizenship
-proposed 14th and 15th amendment
-led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner
What was the civil rights act 1866?
a law granting A.A full citizenship passed in rezones to black code
Why did congress pass the 14th amendment after the civil rights act 1866?
-passed after the civil rights act 1866 because congress wanted citizenship for blacks protected in the constitution
Describe the terms of the reconstruction act of 1867
-divided states into 5 military districts
-member of the ruling class before the war lost their voting rights
-before southern states could reenter the union they would have to 1)approve new state constitutions that give the vote to all adult men, including A.A
2)they must ratify the 14th amendment
why was president Johnsonn impeached.
-he violated the tenure of office act when he fired his secretary of war w/ out the consent of congress
describe ways A.A responded to freedom
-A.A left their plantations
-some went looking for economic opportunity in the north and west
-A.A also traveled in search of family members
Describe the freedman's schools.
-set up to educate newly freed A.A
-such schools were started by the freedmen's bureau, northern missionaries groups, and A.A organizations
list the congressmen who supported land reforms as part of reconstruction
thaddeus stevens and charles sumner
describe the contract system and its effects on A.A
A.A could decide who to work for and planters could not abuse them or split families
-paid very low wages, some could not cleave w/ out permission and many owners cheated workers out of wages
Describe the system of sharecropping and the cycle of debt the sharecroppers became trapped in.
-a worker rented a plot of land to farm
-when harvest came the sharecropper gave the landowner a share of the crop
-farmers wanted to grow food to feed families but landowners wanted to sell cash crops-cotten
-workers had to buy food from local stores
-created circle of debt bc workers had to pay off previous year's debt w/ profit from crops
What were the goals of the Ku klux Klan and what did they do to A.A and white republicans? How did the southern military authorities respond to the actions of the KKK.
-attacked and beat A.A and some white republicans
-burned homes and lynched some people and stopped some republicans from voting
-klans goal were to restore democratic control of the south and keep former slaves powerless
-military authorities in the south ignored the violence
how did grant win the election of 1868
grant would not have such a majority w/ out freedman's vote
what did the 15th amendment give to A.A men and what was the response of women to it?
-this amendment gave A.A men the right to vote
-women were angry bc they couldn't vote but former slaves could
Describe how grant fought the KKK
-asked congress to pass anti-klan bill
-arrested thousands of klansmen and attacks on A.A declined
-grant won reelection in 1872 due to this
Describe the scandals in the republican party
-grant did not choose his advisers well
-scandals deeply outraged many republicans
-some republican officials broke away and formed the new liberal republican party
describe the panic of 1873 and its effects
-when several european banks ran out of money, a financial panic swept the country
-panic caused an economic depression a time of low business active and high unemployment
what effect did the supreme court rulings have on the 14ht and 15th amendments
-court stated that the 15th amendment did not give everyone the right to vote
-court ruled that congress could not punish those who violated the civil rights of A.A (the states were responsible for doing this)
Describe the terms of the compromise of 1877 and the abolitionists response to it.
-rutherford b. hayes would become president
- ended reconstruction
-abolitionists opposed it bc they believed the south would not respect A.A rights
1)government would remove federal troops from the south
2)the government would provide land grants and loans for construction of railroads
3)southern officials would receive federal funds
4)hayes would appoint a democrat to his cabinet
5)the democrats promised to respect A.A civil right s
Describe the legacy of the reconstruction
-nation did reunite and rebuild
-A.A did not achieve equality
-civil rights act of 1866, 14th and 15th amendments protected A.A rights
-southern democrats did not respect the civill rights if A.A
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