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Art History Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (23)
What new approaches to form did the Impressionists introduce and how were these trends continued in the work of the Post-Impressionists?
-Color theory (in light and nature)
-abandoned the conventional idea that the shadow of an object was made up from its color with some brown or black added.
-they enriched their colors with the idea that the shadow of an object is broken up with dashes of its complementary color.
-sought to capture the atmosphere of a particular time of day or the effects of different weather conditions on the landscape (had to work fast)
'en plein air' (painting outside)
Didn't care if edges or patterns distracted from the focal point
The Post Impressionists were a few independent artists at the end of the 19th century who rebelled against the limitations of Impressionism. They developed a range of personal styles that focused on the emotional, structural, symbolic and spiritual elements that they felt were missing from Impressionism.
Pushed boundaries of Impressionism
Embraced vivid color, disregard how it has to be seen in nature/light/shadow
What is "Primitivism"
refers to the cultural artifacts of "primitive" peoples - that is, those ethnic groups deemed to have a relatively low standard of technological development by Western standards.
how may the art of Paul Gauguin and Henri Matisse be understood to reflect primitivist interests?
-Paul Gauguin moved to Tahiti, wanted more sexual freedom
-Wanted to defend Tahiti against European civilization
-demonstrates fantasies about racial and sexual difference in "an effort to essentialize notions of primitiveness...wanted to celebrate and protect them but ended up victimizing them all over again
Henri Matisse (The Blue Nude)
-deeper understanding of simplicity than Gauguin
-less realism in color
-Flattens the plane
How may we characterize the art of Paul Cézanne? How did he build upon the work of Impressionist artists? What aspects of his art are evident in the work of Cubist artists, Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque?
modern artist whose work was a precursor for Cubism and Fauvism.
compositions were usually dark in tone and he often chose to work inside rather than en plein air.
style and technique was avant-garde
thickly placed layers of paint and undefined forms and attempted to simplify everything into shapes that could be broken down.
Cézanne's insistence on redoing nature according to a system of basic forms was important to Picasso's own interest at that time
Cézanne was a constant touchstone for the two artists during this period of collaboration, which eventually resulted in the invention of Cubism
What is meant by the term "Modernism" in art? What interests do modern artists share?
Experimental, new processes
Think industrial revolution
Rejected religious and enlightenment thinking
What is "modern" about the sculpture of Auguste Rodin?
most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, modeled the human body with realism, and celebrated individual character and physicality.
Character and emotion represented through body
detailed, textured surfaces, and the interplay of light and shadow
Why was the early 20th century a period of such intense creative development? What scientific, technological, and intellectual developments motivated the creation of so many different forms of visual expression?
20th-century Western painting begins with the heritage of late-19th-century painters Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and others who were essential for the development of modern art.
What visual interests typify Fauvism? How do Fauve artists use color?
goal of separating color from its descriptive, representational purpose
allowing it to exist on the canvas as an independent element. Color could project a mood and establish a structure within the work of art without having to be true to the natural world.
simplified forms and saturated colors drew attention to the inherent flatness of the canvas or paper
within that pictorial space, each element played a specific role. The immediate visual impression of the work is to be strong and unified.
Valued individual expression.
The artist's direct experience of his subjects, his emotional response to nature, and his intuition were all more important than academic theory or elevated subject matter. All elements of painting were employed in service of this goal.
Who invented Cubism? What formal elements characterize Cubist art works?
Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. Cubism is characterized by the subject being depicted from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context instead of just one viewpoint. Artists wanted to emphasize the two-dimensionality of the canvas, so they reduced and fractured objects into geometric forms, and then realigned these within a shallow, space.
Discuss the impact of World War I on the development of art in Europe and North America. How was DADA a reaction to this conflict? Surrealism?
The outbreak of the war resulted in darker themes and untraditional methods in artist's works. A lot of depictions of the war began to emerge, such as death, nationalism, Dada was an artistic and literary movement that began in Switzerland. It arose as a reaction to World War I and the nationalism that many thought had led to the war.
How is Surrealism different from DADA?
Dada artists annihilated the conventional understanding of art as something precious, replacing it with a strange and irrational art about ideas and actions rather than about objects. The Dadaist movement was a result of the feelings of unrest, despair, and struggle that working classes felt against the elite classes. Surrealism deviated from reality and was regressive in nature as people wanted to forget the atrocities of war.
What is De Stijl? What was Mondrian's role in the development of this movement?
It is also known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917 in Amsterdam. This movement focused on sensual/subjective beauty, and a higher, rational and universal beauty highlighted by using horizontal and vertical lines and primary colors. Mondrian uses this concept in his work to create a "dynamic equilibrium" in his work by carefully arranging shape, line and color grouped asymmetrically on the canvas.
What innovations did early 20th century architect, Frank Lloyd Wright, introduce in his buildings?
Established the imagery for much of the contemporary architectural movement. He focused on the honesty of a building and incorporated a lot of modern techniques. He had a constant search for form.
Why did New York become the new center of the Western art world following World War II?
The founding of the Museum of Modern Art in NY in 1929 the first
museum dedicated exclusively to modern art.
A number of European artists had spent the war years in exile in
The arrival of an adventurous and wealthy American art collector and gallery owner, Peggy Guggenheim, who had spent time in London and Paris, opened a gallery in NY called Art of This Century where she showed only avant-garde artists from Europe and up-and-coming American artists.
How did Picasso's Guernica function as social protest?
Picasso, sympathetic to the Republican government of his homeland, was horrified by the reports of devastation and death. Guernica is his visual response, his memorial to the brutal massacre. Rather than the typical celebration of technology people expected to see at a world's fair, the entire Spanish Pavilion shocked the world into confronting the suffering of the Spanish people.
What is Abstract Expressionism? What visual and ideological interests did Abstract Expressionists share?
A development of abstract art that originated in New York in the 1940s and 1950s and aimed at subjective emotional expression with particular emphasis on the creative spontaneous act. These artists shared an interest in using abstraction to convey strong emotional or expressive content. They were profoundly influenced by the style and its focus on the unconscious. It encouraged their interest in myth and archetypal symbols.
What is Pop Art? How does Pop Art engage with commodity culture? How does Pop Art differ from DADA and NEO-DADA in its use of commercial products?
Art based on modern popular culture and the mass media, especially as a critical or ironic comment on traditional fine art values. Pop artists celebrated commonplace objects and people of everyday life, in this way seeking to elevate popular culture to the level of fine art.
Dada is an expression against industrialization. Dadaists felt that with mass production, art had lost its place in life. Human society was heading towards complete mechanization and pure logical thinking. The artist reveled against this idea through nonsense and drawing beauty out of what may seem like chaos.
What is meant by the term "Post-Modern"? How may works of the late 20th century be understood in these terms?
A body of art movements that sought to contradict some aspects of modernism or some aspects that emerged or developed in its aftermath. Movements such as intermedia, installation art, conceptual art and multimedia, particularly involving video are described as post-modern.
What did artists do from 1955 to 1965 to bring the real world into their art?
During this time, artists began to follow a new artistic path called assemblage, which was the notion of combining disparate elements to construct a work of art. Assemblage is an artistic composition made from scraps, junk, and odds and ends (as of paper, cloth, wood, stone, or metal).
How did the Conceptual artists eliminate the art object?
Conceptual artists reduced the material presence of the work to an absolute minimum, a tendency that some have referred to as the "dematerialization" of art. They rejected Minimalism's embrace of the conventions of sculpture and painting as mainstays of artistic production. They created art that is about art, and pushed its limits by using minimal materials and even text.
What is Performance Art?
An art form that combines visual art with dramatic performance.
How did the activism of the 1960's influence art?
Redevelopment and urban renewal became the focus of cities around the country. The federal government gave tax incentives that aided in the demolition of neighborhoods and the displacement of huge numbers of poor people. Minorities made up 75% of people displaced nationwide due to urban renewal projects. This became a rallying cry for artists. They created work that spoke to their struggles. Many other artists threw themselves in with dedication, feeling that they had to do something.
What are some of the issues New Media artists address in their art?
New media art is a genre that encompasses artworks created with new media technologies, including digital art, computer graphics, computer animation, virtual art, Internet art, interactive art, video games, computer robotics, 3D printing, cyborg art and art as biotechnology. The term differentiates itself by its resulting cultural objects and social events, which can be seen in opposition to those deriving from old visual arts (i.e. traditional painting, sculpture, etc.)
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