62 terms

Evolution Quiz

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Who proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution?
Charles Darwin
Where are the islands Darwin observed life on the Galapagos?
West coast of South America
What reflects Darwin's view of human evolution?
Humans and apes have a common ancestor
What was not evidence Darwin used to support his theory?
Earth is about 6,000 years old
"Organisms better adapted to their immediate environment are most likely to survive and reproduce" is a statement that best agrees with the theory of evolution by natural selection put forth by these scientists?
Darwin and Wallace
The breeding of plants and animals by humans is called?
artificial selection
"Differential success in reproduction" is just another way of saying?
natural selection
What is the relation between natural selection and evolution?
Natural selection is one of the several mechanisms of evolution
In natural selection, ____________ determines which phenotypes are successful.
the environment
What is not a requirement for natural selection?
excess numbers of individuals
An adaption is__________
an individual's attempt to conform to its environment
The observations of the dissimilar organisms have similar structures. Biologists suggest that__________
Dissimilar organisms might have evolved from a distant, common ancestor
Animals that possess homologous structures probably_________
Evolved from the same ancestor
The bones of the wings of bats are homologous to the bones of the________ of their ancestors?
Front limbs
The approach to evolution that involves the study of similar structures that appears during the development of different organisms is known as the study of_________
Comparative embryology
All known organism transcribe genetic info. to protein molecules via the same genetic code. The finding strongly supports the hypothesis that________________
all organisms are descended from a single common ancestors
What animal does not follow homologous to a human arm?
crayfish claw
Biologists have noticed the most human beings enjoy sex. How would they explain this in evolutionary terms?
Early humans enjoyed sex most had the most babies
What is not an important part of natural selection?
selective breeding of domestic plants and animals
Traits that enhance an individual's ability to compete for limited resources are called____________
In the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory______
populations are units of evolution
The members of a population have traits that are both heritable and variable among individuals, then_______
advantageous traits may become more widespread in subsequent generations
What is not a part of Darwin's explanation of natural selection?
The smallest unit that can evolve is a_____________
Members of the same population_____________
share a common gene pool
In the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, p squared represents___________
the frequency of homologous dominants it the gene pool
In the Hardy-Weinberg theorem, 1 represents___________
the sum of the frequencies of all the alleles of a particular gene
What condition is not a requirement for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
Sexual selection
A colony of humans on the moon is isolated from Earth is a possible result in the_________ of a population of humans?
"Wind blows pollen from one population of plants to another and cross-fertilization occurs" is the best example of________________
gene flow
The original source of all genetic variations is_______________
The evolutionary effects of genetic drift are greater when________
The population size is small
The diversity in morphologies seen in these breeds of dogs is the result of____________
artificial selection
What changes in the gene pool results in an adaptation to the environment?
natural selection
The following occurrences would have the greater impact of the future biological evolution of the human population?
A mutation occurs in one of your sperm or egg cells
"Under some conditions, heterozygotes have greater reproductive success than homozygotes" is called?
heterozygotes advantages
An example neutral variation________
human fingerprints
"The best-adapted organisms will leave behind more offspring" is a statement that best describes how the process of___________ works to change allele frequencies?
natural selection
In the result of having a homozygous recessive (aa)condition of the responsible gene, what statement makes it true?
Heterozygous individuals will survive and be able to pass the recessive allele on to their offspring(Aa)
"How many fertile offspring it produces" is an accurate measures an_________
Organism's Darwinian fitness
In a population of bears, which is most likely to be considered to have the greatest Darwinian fitness?
a bear that leaves the most descendants
Birds with average-sized wings survived a severe storm more successfully than other birds in the same population with longer or shorter wings. This illustrates______
stabilizing selection
A population of squirrels have adapted to hiding from prey and fighting off prey over the years, now the squirrels are very small and very large. What process is responsible for this outcome?
diversifying selection
Stabilizing selection________
favors intermediate variants in a population
According to the "biological species" concept, what is a species?
A population that interbreeds and produces fertile offspring
According to the "biological species" concept members of different species__________
do not mate successfully under natural conditions
each species is genetically isolated from other species because__________
each species is reproductively isolated
The biological species concept CANNOT be applied to organisms that_____
reproduce only sexually
What statement follows the reproductive barriers actually prevents individuals of different species rom mating with each other?
behavioral isolation
Two species of water lilies in the same pond do not interbreed because one blooms at night and the other during the day. The reproductive barrier between them is an example of_____
temporal isolation
"Two fruit flies of different species produce sterile offspring" and "the hybrid offspring of two species of jimsonweeds always die before reproducing" are examples of a_________
Postzygotic reproduce
Individuals of different species living in the same area may be prevented from interbreeding by responding to different mating dancing. This is called
Behavioral isolation
What is not an example of postzygotic barrier?
The two populations live in the same general area but not the same type of environment
What is not an example of prezygotic isolating mechanism?
spontaneous abortion of an embryo
What group has sympatric speciation been most important?
A new species can arise in a single generation_____________
through geographic isolation
The oldest fossils have been dated to be approximately__________ years old
3.5 billion
What would be least useful in determining the relationships among various species?
The wings of birds and insects have the same function, but do not have the same evolutionary origin. Birds and insect wings are _________
What do phylogenetic trees represent?
evolutionary relationships among organisms
The system of binomial nomenclature assigns to each organism a unique name that describes its________
species and genus
Put the following in order: class, family, genus, kingdom, order, phylum, species
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species