Shaping the Urban Environment Final

Terms in this set (24)

NY Life Insurance Co.

dual persona of city beautiful roman inspired building/facade + unseen flow/filtration network of people/circulation/movement through dense city - modernist idea of layering & getting circulation off streets (similar to Rockefeller Center)

location chosen to be non-invasaive and annoying so it was far out of town at the time it was built in 1871

first hub for trains - it was a terminal so trains start and finish here (start and end point , destination)
massive open area below grade w/ train tracks on park avenue (major barrier between east and west sides of upper manhattan with few cross connections over railroads
1899- train crash in Grand Central and Manhattan bans steam trains, so Vanderbilt electrifies lines and re-designs/modernises and demolishes old terminal, creates neo-classical architecture up to date, monumental facade @ head of park ave- reminiscent of roman baths

electricity! decorated w/ exposed lightbulb in chandeliers

-innovations: seamlessly brings/sends thousands of people to/from city (@ height 1m/day went through terminal)
-multiple sub-terranean levels of circulation and movement: pedestrian, rail, mass transit, cars and streets around terminal on different levels
-2 levels of tracks- bottom for short distance commuters who come all the time w/o luggage and upper-level for long distance travellers to allow for efficiency
-underground passageways into manhattan streets and surrounding buildings like Waldorf Astoria, Chrysler Building, etc) (people w/ different destinations have different routes so they are separated out and there isn't much crowding)

*creates midtown as alternative business district to Fidi - later we see development of office buildings and restaurants around 42nd street - becomes so successful that from 1929-1960 there was no new construction in Fidi- Grade Central MADE midtown and gave Manhattan 2 business districts