IB Psychology (IB Exam)

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Bartlett (1932)
Suggested that schemas influence memory during memory reconstruction
Darely and Gross (1938)
Videos of girl in poor and wealthy environment, then intelligence tests. Participants said poor girl would do worse than wealthy
Brewer and Treyens (1981)
Participants left in office, then asked to write everything they remembered from room; most recalled office like items even if they weren't in office, most remembered the skull; supports scheme theory
Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
Participants heard list of words then had to recall them; showed primacy and decency effects, which shows the serial position effect- first and last items remembered most
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
Working memory model: model of short term memory, active store used to hold and manipulate information; has phonological loop, episodic buffer, and Visio-spatial sketchpad all controlled by the central executive
Quinn and McConnel (1996)
Participants learned a list of words using imagery or rehearsal, then had to repeat words with a visual or auditory distraction; showed that if different components of working memory are used then memory isn't interfered with
Sapolsky (1968)
Demonstrated that prolonged stress can damage neurons in hippocampus but can be reversed if normal cortisol levels are restored. Long term stress can cause irreversible damage
Lupien et al. (1998)
Followed group of elderly for 5 years, studied role of cortisol on memory; cortisol secretion too high in ~30% of elderly, excessive secretion showed memory impairment and atrophy of hippocampus; damage can be repaired if had not passsed point of no return
Lupien et al. (2002)
Follow up from 5 year study; tried reversing cortisol related memory problems using cortisol prohibiting drugs. Participants given drugs, memory test, restored cortisol to normal levels, memory test; moderate level of cortisol had memory restoration, high had no memory improvement
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Experiment to test reconstructive memory in relation to eyewitness testimony. Participants saw a car crash and were asked to estimate the speed. Use of the word smashed made participants answer with higher speeds. Established a cause effect relationship between use of specific words and memory reconstruction.
Cole and Scribner (1974)
Investigated how memory strategies are influenced by culture. Asked Liberian children to memorize lists of words in categories, schooled children became better at it, whilst non schooled children did more poorly. This leads to the conclusion that memory strategies such as chunking can be learned.
Rogoff and Waddel (1982)
Mayan children did better in memory task if given one that was meaningful to them in local terms. Model of Mayan village, selected 20 objects and put into village, then taken out and put back, children were asked to reconstruct the scene they were shown. Mayan children did slightly better than USA children. Content and context of memory tasks are important and useful memory strategies are learned in sociocultural context.
LeDoux (1999)
Humans emotional reactions are flexible due to evolution. 2 pathways- short route where amygdala reacts immediately and the long rout where the sensory cortex relates info to the hippocampus. This shows a possible cognitive appraisal
Neisser and Harsch (1992)
Tested theory of flashbulb memory. Participants had to write a description of how they heard a certain shocking event, and answer questions about where they were. What they were doing, their feelings, etc. answered less than 24 hours after disaster, then asked 2 1/2 years later. Many could not remember most of the things they remembered 24 hours after. Challenged flashbulb memory theory, although no sure way to measure levels of emotional arousal of each individual.
Newcomber et al. 1999
Aim: investigate how levels of cortisol interfere with verbal declarative memory
Procedure: cortisol given for 4 days, verbal declarative memory tested
Results: those who received cortisol did worse on tests
Rozenweig and Bennet 1972
A: investigate role of environment on brain
P: rats in enriched and impoverished environments
R: Enriched rats had better developed cerebral cortex
Milner 1957
A: investigate the case of HM
P: memory tests
R: hippocampus is crucial for memory formation
Berridge and Kringlebach 2009
dopamine is connected with pleasure seeking behavior. fMRI scans on people.
Fischer 2004
being in love is like an addiction as dopamine increases desire. fMRIs on people.
Martinez and Kesner 1991
A: investigate the role of ACh in memory formation
P: rats and mazes, 3 groups (control, more, less)
R: those with more ACh did better than control, less did worse
Zak
A: investigate the biological connection between morality and the brain
P: trust games involving blood draws before and after to examine oxytocin levels
R: oxytocin levels were higher in people who received money, these people then sent more money back
Lazarus
The long route:
stress is a two-way process; it involves the production of stressors by the environment, and the response of an individual subjected to these stressors. His conception regarding stress led to the theory of cognitive appraisal.
Corkin
MRI scans on HM to observe exact hippocampal damage
Riniolo
A: investigate reliability of eyewitnesses memory of the titanic
P: Used archival data from court cases
R: 75% said ship sank in two pieces, showing that central memories are pretty much intact, contrary to popular belief
Talarico and Rubin
A: see the properties of flashbulb memories and their influence of emotion on the person
P: students at Duke were called on and were tested on memories of hearing about the terrorist attack (9/11) the previous morning, then several times at later dates
R: the recall consistency of these "flashbulb" memories was no different than that of everyday memories.
Brown and Peterson
A: investigate the duration of short-term memory, and provide empirical evidence for the multi-store model
P: 24 students had to recall trigrams (meaningless three-consonant syllables). To prevent rehearsal participants were asked to count backwards in threes or fours from a specified random number until they saw a red light appear.
R: The longer the interval delay the less trigrams were recalled. Short-term memory has a limited duration when rehearsal is prevented. It is thought that this information is lost from short-term memory from trace decay.
Rizzolatti
discovered mirror neurons in monkeys first, then moved on to humans. mirror neurons help explain empathy
Fessler (2005)
A: investigate disgust in first trimester
P: web-based questionnaire
R: higher feelings of disgust in first trimester, especially when it came to food
Capsi (2003)
A: determine if there's a connection between the 5-HTT gene and depression
P: comparison of people with the mutated gene and with the normal gene
R: people with the mutated gene who also experienced many stressful events were more likely to get depression
Bremner (2003)
A: measure hippocampal volume based on stress
P: MRI scans and tests of veterans and sexual abuse victims
R: In these people, hippocampus was smaller and short-term memory loss demonstrated
Ashtari (2009 or 4/20?)
A: investigate weed on the developing brain
P: MRI on heavy users and a control group
R: brain abnormalities demonstrated, thinner myelin sheaths (only correlational!)
Harris and Fiske (2006)
A: investigate the brain's response to extreme outgroups to find the cause of stereotypes and prejudices
P: fMRI scans of students who were shown pictures of extreme outgroups and also objects
R: people viewed the outgroups as objects
Bouchard (1990)
A: investigate genetic inheritance in intelligence
P: IQ tests of MZ twins reared together and apart
R: 70% of the differences in intelligence can be attributed to genes
Baumgartner (2008)
A: investigate role of oxytocin after trust breaches in a game
P: trust game, some people's trust was broken
R: those who received oxytocin instead of placebo continued to invest/trust while those who received placebo did not
Palva (2010)
A: investigate neural networks of cerebral cortex (visual working memory)
P: EEGs and MEGs during visual tasks
R: syncronization of neural networks during tasks, supports baddely's model
Atkinson and Shiffrin
multi-store model of memory
-serial position effect
-amnesiacs
Speisman (1964)
A: investigate how cognitive appraisal influences emotions
P: genital cutting film with different soundtracks
R: trauma soundtrack participants showed more stress than the other soundtracks (supports ledoux)
Ross (1977)
A: investigate the FAE and judgements
P: quiz game (10 questions based on your own knowledge, contestants answered these)
R: contestants made the FAE by saying the questioners were smarter even though they knew they came up with the questions based on their own knowledge
Suedfeld (2003)
A: investigate attributions made by Holocaust victims
P: questionnaires of people who were actually in concentration camps and people who were alive during the time
R: concentration camp people said their success was due to environmental factors, non-survivors said it was due to dispositional (FAE)
Lau and Russel (1980)
American football players and coaches attribute success to disposition when they win, but environment when they lose
Posey and Smith (2003)
A: investigate SSB
P: math problems with pairs of friends or non-friends
R: friends who failed attributed it to situational, friends who succeeded gave friends credit; non-friends who both failed and succeeded showed the SSB
Kashima and Triandis (1986)
A: investigate culture in SSB
P: showed slides to Japanese and American students, asked them to remember details
R: Americans showed SSB, Japanese showed modesty bias
Hofstede (1980)
A: investigate culture in behavior
P: survey of IBM employees from different countries
R: Hofstede argued that culture is "mental software"
Wei (2001)
A: investigate collectivism vs individualism in conflict resolution
P: questionnaires given to managers in several cultures
R: culture cannot totally predict conflict resolution, but in general, the more individualist, the more dominating
Bartlett (1932) herdsman
Swazi herdsman can recall characteristics of their cattle
Pike (1967)
emic- culture-specific
etic- cross-cultrual trying to find a universal
Sherif (1936)
A: investigate conformity to the group norm
P: autokinetic effect on participants in varying group sizes
R: those in a group of 3 or 4 tended to align their answers
Asch (1951)
A: investigate percieved group pressure on minorities
P: line test (remember photo)
R: in the control, no errors were made, but people in groups of 7 said what the others said
Regan (1971)
A: test if people who recieved a favor would be more likely to return a favor
P: rate the paintings, confederate left, returned with cokes, confederate later asked for raffle tickets
R: those who got cokes bought twice as many raffle tickets
Dickerson (1992)
A: investigate foot-in-the-door
P: field experiment about conserving water (sign a poster, do a survey about water usage, experimenters monitored showers)
R: students who signed the poster and did the survey spent less time showering
Tajfel (1970)
A: investigate in-group and out-groups
P: boys allocated into groups based on if they overestimated or underestimated groups, boys had to allocate money to other boys
R: boys allocated more money to their own group even though the groups were meaningless
Simmel (1944)
people described movement of geometric shapes as having intentions
Evans-Pritchard (1976)
Central Africans believed witchcraft was why the doorway fell, not the termites
Steele and Aronson (1995)
A: investigate the effect of stereotypes on behavior
P: gave African-Americans and whites a test, had different conditions for what they told them the test was about
R: African-Americans scored worse when told it was a test of verbal ability, but scored better when told it was a test of problem-solving
Bandura and Ross (1961)
BOBO DOLL
A: investigate social learning theory
P: have girls and boys watch adults playing with bobo dolls
R: the children who watched adults play aggressively played aggressively, children were more likely to imitate same-sex models
Charlton (2002)
A: investigate if kids on St. Helena would be more aggressive after tv introduction
P: naturalistic observation before and after
R: no increase, even after 5 years
Chugani (1999)
A: investigate cognitive development in infants
P: PET scans on infants of varying ages
R: lower levels of brain develop first
Giedd (2004)
did MRI scans, found that 95% of brain structure is formed before age 6 and frontal lobe develops again during teenage years
Waber (2007)
Age predicts performance on tests; as kids mature, cognitive processing speeds up
Piaget
egocentrism- inability to see another's viewpoint (mountain task)
inability to do conservation tasks- cannot see things remain constant when they visibly change
Hughes (1975)
P: policeman task with kids
R: kids could mostly do the task, undermining Piaget's theory
Vygotsky
zone of proximal development- gap between what kid can do alone and with help
scaffolding- when an adult gives help
Bhoomika (2008)
A: study the effect of malnutrition on cognitive performance
P: gave Indian kids tests
R: malnourished kids did worse on tests of attention, working memory, and visuospatial tasks
Farah (2008)
A: investigate the relationship between environmental stimulation and parental nurturance on cognitive development
P: interviews and checklists of kids in their homes at ages 4 and 8
R: positive correlation between environmental stimulation and language development; positive correlation between parental nurturance and LTM
Ainsworth (1978)
A: investigate attachment patterns
P: strange situation
R: found three patterns: secure, avoidant, and ambivalent
Bowlby (1973)
basically said that how you attach to your parents as a child influences your adult relationships

internal working model- child's mental representation of how they think their parent (attachment figure) will react
Attachment history- differences in attachment history account for different adult relationships as well as disorders of attachment
Van Ijzendorn and Kroonenberg (1988)
A: figure out cultural implications in attachment
P: analyzed pre-done studies on attachment from several countries
R: Secure attachment in the West; ambivalent (but no avoidant) in Japan
Hazan and Shaver (1987)
A: investigate attachment in adult relationships
P: love quiz in newspaper with questions about adult relationships and attachment history
R: basically, the attachment of when you are a kid predicts what kind of love relationships when you're an adult
Carion (2009)
A: investigate PTSD's affect on development
P: fMRI scans on abuse victims/trauma survivors
R: these people had less hippocampal volume and did worse on verbal memory tests
Yehuda (2001)
A: investigate PTSD's affect on development
P: looked at mental health of kids of Holocaust survivors
R: the children of Holocaust survivors were more likely to develop PTSD
Rutter (2004)
A: investigate deprivation on cognitive development
P: interviews in home with observations and questionnaires
R: the more time the kids had spent in the Romanian orphanages, the more cognitively impaired they were and the more likely they were to have disinhibited attachment disorder
Money and Ehrhardt (1972)
David/Brenda Reimer
Smith and Lloyd (1978)
A: investigate formation of gender roles
P: baby X
R: adults played with babies according to snowsuit color
Sroufe (1993)
P: observed 10-11 yr olds
R: those who behaved outside of gender norms were unpopular
Martin and Halvorson (1983)
A: investigate the effect of gender role schemas
P: 5-6 yr olds saw pics that were consistent (girl playing with doll) or inconsistent (girl with gun) with gender role schemas
R: children distorted the memories of the inconsistent images
Eagly (1987)
gender stereotypes come from different gender roles
Mead (1935)
A: compare gender roles cross-culturally
P: examination of gender roles in 3 different New Guinean tribes
R: gender roles vary based on culture
Ferron (1997)
A: investigate cultural differences in perceptions of puberty
P: surveys of French and American teenaged boys and girls
R: Americans believe they could change appearance with diet and exercise, French believed that you could not
Epsin (1990)
A: test Erickson's ideas
P: Longitudinal case study of a Latin-American girl's letters to her teacher (she experienced trauma as a kid)
R: themes of identity increased in her letters from ages 13-18
Rutter (1976) identity
A: investigate the concept of identity crisis (challenge Erickson)
P: All adolescents on Isle of Wight between 14-15 were given questionnaires. Teachers and parents were also interviewed.
R: very few teenagers reported identity crises or showed signs of identity issues
Clive Wearing
was a great conductor but got a virus and lost his hippocampus. can't make new long term memories and his short term lasts between 7-30 seconds. procedural memory was not affected (he could still play piano) but episodic was. hippocampus must control memory transfer from short to long term memory.
HM
27 years old and suffered severe epilepsy. cut out hippocampus. episodic and semantic memory damaged. couldn't remember anything after operation. could still learn procedural things like star task
Kent Cochrane
he suffered long-term memory impairment following encephalitis, but his short-term
store remained unaffected.; he is a musician
and chorus master; he could not recall past events in his life, but he could remember how to play the piano and conduct an orchestra.
Scarr and Weinberg (1977)
A: To investigate the relationship between IQ and genetics as well as the environment
P: Sample was trans-racial adoption participants who were African American children adopted by middle class caucasian families. Gave IQ tests
R: No significant difference in IQ correlations. Genetics must not control IQ a lot.
Curtis
A: investigate universal patterns of disgust
P: internet survey of 20 pairs of disgusting images (one an immune threat, one not)
R: immune threats found to be more disgusting
Brown and Kulik (1977)
A: investigate whether shocking events are recalled more vividly and accurately than other events.
P: Questionnaires asked 80 participants to recall circumstances where they had learned of shocking events
R: emotionally shocking events were remembered well, researchers thought this was because of increased physiological arousal (amygdala)
Zimbardo (1973)
A: investigate conformity to assigned roles
P: mock prison with students as either guards or prisoners
R: both guards and prisoners stepped into roles with the whole situation quickly becoming a mess: highly unethical
Milgram (1963)
A: investigate how authority influences conformity
P: confederate learning words, if they get them wrong, the participant MUST (according to experimenter) shock them
R: people obeyed the experimenter even when the confederate was clearly distressed and in pain
Jones and Harris (1967)
A: investigate making the FAE even when told roles are assigned
P: participants read either pro or anti Castro essays; half the participants were told the positions were assigned, half were told free choice
R: people made the FAE even when they knew the positions were assigned
Bond and Smith (1996)
A: investigate Asch paradigm in other cultures
P: meta-analysis of previous studies of Asch paradigm in 17 countries
R: there are higher rates of conformity in collectivist countries
Hamilton and Gifford (1976)
A: •To investigate illusory correlation of group size and negative behavior
P: asked participants to read descriptions about groups A and B; group A did more bad behavior BUT the ratios of bad to good behavior in both groups were the same
R: negative behaviors attributed to group A, showing that stereotypes form from illusory correlations
Rogers and Frantz (1962)
A: investigate the formation of stereotypes
P: case study on American immigrants to Zimbabwe
R: Americans took on the ingroup's representation of the outgroup and formed stereotypes