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Gross I: Trachea, Pharynx, & Esophagus

Where is the trachea located?
Extends inferiorly from the larynx at the level of C6 vertebra to its termination into the right and left main bronchi at lever T4-5 IVD.
What is the shape of the cartilage in the trachea?
Horse shoe shaped.
Where are the trachea muscles?
They span the gaps in the posterior trachea where the rings are absent.
What is the pharynx?
Superior portion of the cervical alimentary system. Extends from the base of the skull inferiorly to the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage at about the level of the C6 vertebral body.
What are the three parts of the pharynx?
Nasopharynx - Posterior to the nose and superior to the soft palate. Contains the pharyngeal tonsil (Adenoids)

Oropharynx - Posterior to the mounth

Laryngopharynx - Posterior to the larynx
How are the muscles of the pharynx divided?
Divided into external circular layer and internal longitudinal muscles
What structures pass superior to Superior Pharyngeal constrictor muscle?
Levator Veli Palatini
**Pharyngotympanic Tube - for pressure equilibrium
Ascending Palatine Artery
What is the origin of the Superior Pharyngeal Constrictor muscle?
O: Lateral tongue, posterior end of mylohyoid line of mandible. pterygoid hamulus,
What structures pass between the Superior and Middle Pharyngeal constrictor muscle?
Stylopharyngeus muscle
***Glossopharyngeal Nerve
Stylohyoid ligament
What is the origin of the Middle Pharyngeal Constrictor muscle?
O: Back of hyoid bone and Stylohyoid ligament
What structures pass between the Middle and Inferior Pharyngeal constrictor muscle?
***Internal laryngeal nerve
Superior Laryngeal artery and vein
What is the origin of the Inferior Pharyngeal Constrictor muscle?
O: Obligue line of thyroid cartilage and side of cricoid cartilage.
What structures pass inferior to Inferior Pharyngeal constrictor muscle?
***Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve
***Inferior Laryngeal nerve
What are the internal muscles of the pharynx?
What is the origin of the Palatopharyngeus muscle?
O: hard palate and palatine aponeurosis
I: Posterior border of lamina of thyroid cartilage side of pharynx and esophagus
What is the origin of the Salpingpharyngeus muscle?
O: Cartilaginous portion of the pharyngotympanic tube
I: Blends in with palatopharyngeua
What is the origin of the Stylopharyngeus muscle?
O: Styloid Process
I: Thryoid Cartilage and blending into palatopharyngeua
What is the common action of the internal pharyngeal muscles?
Elevates pharynx and larynx during swallowing
What arteries supply the pharynx?
Branch of the facial artery, the tonsillar artery, passes through superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle.
What is the innervation of the Pharyngeal?
Pharyngeal plexus of Nerves: Motor and most sensory

Vagus: Motor Fibers through its pharyngeal branches supplying all the muscles of the pharynx and the soft palate.
What is the location of the esophagus?
Inferior border of the cricoid cartilage (C6)
Describe the breakdown of voluntary and involuntary muscles of the esophagus.
Upper third is voluntary

Middle Third is mixed

Lower third is involuntary
What artery supplies the esophagus?
Inferior Thyroid Arteries
What is the innervation of the esophagus?
The upper half is supplied with sensory and motor innervation through the vagus nerve.

The lower half motor innervation through the recurrent laryngeal nerve from vagus and sensory through sympathetic nerve fibers.
What does the superficial cervical lymph nodes of the neck drain?
Drain most fo the superficail structures of the neck into the inferior deep cervical lymph nodes.

Follows the course of the internal jugular vein.
What are the various lymph nodes of the neck?
Where does the thoracic duct travel?
Travels superiorly rom the left border of the esophagus in the thorax. Turns laterally at the root of the neck to enter the left brachiocephailic vein at the left venous angle (junction of IJV and subclavian)