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74 terms

The Reproductive System

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hormones
In the endocrine system __________ help regulate and coordinate body systems.
hormones
The endocrine glands found throughout the body manufacture chemical messengers called __________.
ductless
Endocrine glands release hormones directly into the blood because they are __________.
negative-feedback
In a __________-__________ system the endocrine glands gives chemical messages to control the production and release of hormones.
male
The __________ reproductive system has both internal and external organs.
testes
The __________ are organs that produce the male hormone testosterone and reproductive cells called sperm.
sperm
The testes produce reproductive cells called __________.
semen
Internal organs combine sperm with a fluid energy source producing __________.
ovaries
Internal organs called __________ produce egg cells.
ovulation
Once a month the __________ process releases an egg.
uterus
A hollow, pear-shaped, muscular organ in which fertilized eggs develop is called the __________.
vagina
The __________, or birth canal, is a muscular tube that opens to the outside of the body.
menstrual cycle
The monthly cycle of changes in the female reproductive system is called the __________ __________.
estrogen
Endocrine hormones called __________ and progesterone control the menstrual cycle.
progesterone
Endocrine hormones called estrogen and __________ control the menstrual cycle.
menstruation
The release of blood and the uterine lining tissue that occurs in phases in the female reproductive system is called __________.
menstrual flow
Phase one of the menstrual cycle begins when __________ __________ starts and usually lasts about 4 to 6 days.
ovulation
Phase two of the menstrual cycle involves the thickening of the uterus lining and __________, or egg release.
decreasing
Phase 3 of the menstrual cycle continues with uterine preparation and ends with __________ hormone levels and uterine lining breakdown if no fertilized egg arrives.
menopause
The gradual shutdown of the ovaries which end ovulation and menstrual periods is called __________.
fertilization
The uniting of the egg and sperm is called __________.
zygote
When the nucleus of the sperm joins with the nucleus of the egg a cell called a __________ is formed.
mitosis
A zygote divides into more genetically identical cells by a process called __________.
fraternal
When more than one egg is fertilized __________ twins will develop.
identical
When the egg or the zygote splits in two __________ twins develop.
two, two
Fraternal twins form from __________ different eggs and __________ different sperm.
one, one
Identical twins form from __________ egg and __________ sperm.
Multiple
__________ births result from multiple egg release (fraternal twins) or division of the zygote (identical twins).
pregnancy
The period of development before birth is called __________.
embryo
When the zygote moves from the oviduct to the uterus it attaches and becomes an __________.
umbilical cord
The __________ __________ connects the embryo to the placenta which provides nourishment from the mother and removes wastes from the embryo.
amniotic sac
The __________ __________ cushions the embryo and stores nutrients and wastes.
fetus
The embryo is called a __________ after the first two months of development.
muscular contractions
During the birthing process __________ __________ of the uterus push the baby out through the vagina.
umbilical cord
After the baby is born the __________ __________ is cut.
cesarean section
Babies who cannot be delivered through the birth canal must be delivered by a surgery called a __________ __________.
infancy
The first 18 months of life is called __________.
stress
Newborns experience fetal __________ as they adapt to life outside the uterus.
neonatal
The first four weeks of infancy is known as the __________ period.
depend
Human babies __________ on their parents for survival.
childhood
From 18 months to puberty a child's physical and mental development continues. During this time a human is in the stage of __________.
adolescence
When a child hits puberty (reproductive maturity) the child is now in the __________ stage of life.
secondary sex
During adolescence hormones cause males and females to develop __________ __________ characteristics.
adulthood
From age 18 through old age a person is in his/her __________ stage.
adulthood
During __________ a person's muscles and bones stop growing.
middle
In __________ adulthood (30 to 60) the body begins to slowly decline.
older
After age 60 a person enter __________ adulthood.
seventy five
The average life span of a human today is age __________ __________.
target tissue
Tissues affected by hormones.
sperm
Male reproductive cells.
testes
Male reproductive organs.
ovaries
Produce eggs in the female.
uterus
Muscular organ in which a fertilized egg develops into a baby.
vagina
The birth canal.
ovulation
The process of releasing eggs on a monthly basis.
menstruation
The monthly discharge of the lining of the uterus.
menopause
This occurs when the menstrual cycle becomes irregular and then stops.
embryo
The fertilized egg during the first two months of pregnancy.
semen
A mixture of sperm and fluid.
menstrual cycle
The monthly cycle of changes in the female reproductive system.
amniotic sac
This cushions the developing baby.
fetus
The developing baby after the first two months of pregnancy.
pregnancy
The period of development lasting nine months.
hormones
These are endocrine secretions.
pineal gland
This endocrine gland produces a hormone called melatonin that helps your body to regulate wake/sleep patterns.
pituitary gland
This endocrine gland produces hormones that affect a wide range of body activities, from growth to reproduction.
thymus
This endocrine gland produces infection-fighting cells called T-helper cells or T-cells. These are a special type of white blood cell.
testes
This endocrine gland primarily produces a hormone called testosterone.
testosterone
This hormone plays an important role in the production of sperm and secondary male characteristics.
thyroid gland
This endocrine gland produces hormones that regulate metabolic rate, control the uptake of calcium by bones, and promotes normal nervous system development.
parathyroid glands
These endocrine glands help regulate calcium levels in the body.
adrenal glands
These endocrine glands produces a variety of hormones and some of these play a critical role in helping your body adapt to physical and emotional stress.
pancreas
This endocrine gland produces a hormone called insulin which helps your body to control blood sugar levels in the bloodstream.
ovaries
These endocrine glands produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone which help regulate the female reproductive cycle and are responsible for producing and maintaining female sex characteristics.