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Politics of the United States
Government Chapter 18 Vocab
Terms in this set (23)
The lower federal courts, beneath the Supreme Court.
The authority of a court to hear and decide a case.
Power shared by federal and state courts to hear certain cases.
In civil law, the party who brings a suit or some other legal action against another (the defendant) in court.
In a civil suit, the person against whom a court action is brought by the plaintiff; in a criminal case, the person charged with the crime.
The power of a court to hear a case first. Hears evidence and determines the innocence or guilt of defendants.
The authority of a court to review decisions of courts with original jurisdiction.
A judicial philosophy in which supporters believe that judges should decide cases based on the original intent of the Framers, those who enacted the statutes involved in a case, or on precedent.
Court decision that stands as an example to be followed in future, similar cases.
A judicial philosophy in which supporters believe that judges should interpret and apply provisions in the Constitution and in statute law in the light of ongoing changes in conditions and values of society.
A case in involving the breaking of a law; some level of government is always the prosecution in these cases.
A case involving a non-criminal matter such as a contract dispute or a claim of patent infringement.
A court's list of cases to be heard.
Writ of Certiorari
An order by a higher court directing a lower court to send up the record in a given case for review; from the Latin meaning "to be more certain."
A method of putting a case before the Supreme Court; used when a lower court is not clear about the procedure or rule of law that should apply in a case and asks the Supreme Court to certify the answer to a specific question.
Detailed written statements filed with the Court before oral arguments are presented.
Officially the Opinion of the Court; announces the Court's decision in a case and sets out the reasoning upon which it is based.
Written explanation of the views of one or more judges who support a decision reached by a majority of the court, but wish to add or emphasize a point that was not made in the majority decision.
Written explanation of the views of one or more judges who disagree with (dissent from) a decision reached by the majority of the court.
A court composed of military personnel, for the trial of those accused of violating military law.
Satisfaction of a claim payment.
Part of the judicial branch, entirely seperate from the military establishment
Transcript of proceedings made in the trial court
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