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Art Appreciation: Art Movements
Terms in this set (27)
Existed primarily between 1943 to 1965, and having overcome age-old representational art, it became the dominant art style for some time. One of the most famous Abstract Expressionists was Jackson Pollock, who used "Action Painting" to drip paint onto his canvas in seemingly random ways according to his instinct. These artists didn't plan out their work beforehand but rather created it moment by moment. Like Expressionism, this art possesses and stimulates intense emotions, and appeals to one's feelings rather than intellect. Although it is created as nonrepresentational (no connection to the real world), it can become an abstraction of something real as it is developed. For example, Willem de Kooning would often begin painting nonrepresentationally, but then see something real in his work, such as Door to the River, which can be seen as merely a collection of brushstrokes or an imaginative picture of a door. Another style which is an altered version of reality is Surrealism. Because of World War II, many Surrealist artists came to New York and acted as a major influence for the creation of Abstract Expressionism. Gathering elements from the modern styles of nonrepresentation, abstraction, and Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism often looked messy, like the paint was just thrown around the canvas (which it often was). Branching from Abstract Expressionism came Color-Field Painting (with Mark Rothko) and the New York School (with Helen Frankenthaler). This powerful style eventually was dampened and confronted Contemporary and Pop art, which wanted to revive representation in the art world.
Spanned from 1000 to 330 B.C.E. Was preceded by Egyptian art and was followed by Classical Roman art. The Parthenon is probably one of the most well known works or ancient Greece. "Loosely translated, the word Parthenon means to the virgin".This temple was was built in honor of the virgin goddess Athena of Athens. Greek mythology played a huge role in ancient greek art. Another defining visual characteristic of ancient greek architecture were columns. Architecture and sculptures were the main art forms used. However, Greek pottery was also very popular. An ideology popular during the period of classical Greek sculpture is the ideal of stoicism. Stoicism is the greek ideal of dignity and self control. Two well-known artists during this period were, Myron and Polykleitos.
A French term meaning "vanguard". It references artists or artworks that are new and upcoming, or new ways that are different from the old traditional ways of life. It came into common use at the time of Modernism and Expressionism during the end of the nineteenth century. It refers futuristic optimism and the hope of creating radical or new kinds of art. One of the most outward "beacons" of avante-garde was the Eiffel Tower in Paris, which became sort of the emblem and physical manifestation of this idea. (Lewis and Lewis).
This movement was a famous art movement that occurred from 1575-1750. This movement came after the Renaissance and the Mannerism movement. Mannerism was the bridge between Renaissance and Baroque. After Baroque, Classicism emerged after the enlightenment in Europe. The Baroque movement incorporated dramatic usage of light and dark to show movement and other effects. In addition to that, Baroque paintings included a lot of ideas of naturalism. The goal was to show elements of ordinary life in various different religious scenes. Some famous artists from this time period include Rembrandt, Caravaggio, Bernini, Peter Paul Rubens, and many more.
This art period lasted from about 330 until 1453. Before Byzantine Early christian art and Classical Roman art was popular. After the Byzantine period The early middle ages thrived. One of the staple pieces of the Byzantine period was the San Vitale. The San Vitale was very different architectural wise that the Parthenon. Another popular art style of the Byzantine period was mosaic art. Mosaic art covered the walls of the San Vitale. These mosaics were influenced by the emperor Justinian and Constantine the Great. The artists of the mosaics located in the San Vitale are unknown.
Is a style in literature, art, music and architecture that draws the style of Ancient Greece and Rome. Classicism was a movement between late 1800's-1900. This artwork concentrates on elegance and symmetry to get the "Ancient Greek and Rome perfection". A few artists that were significant during this movement are Michelangelo, Raphael, Correggio, and Mantegna.The art is "emotionless with attention on favored on form and details" (classicism). The art movement before Classicism was Rocco, Rocco was characterized by soft colors and curvy lines, and depicts scenes of love, nature, amorous encounters, light-hearted entertainment, and youth. After Classicism was Romanticism; which was characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules.
Art made after 1945. Movements before this were abstract and nonrepresentational art. As contemporary art spans into the present, there is no movement after it. Some cultural events that happened during this movement are the Space Race and Vietnam War, as well as 9-11 and the internet coming into existence. Video art and abstract expressionism have been prevalent visually in this movement. Some famous artists from this movement are Andy Warhol and Judy Chicago.
Began at the beginning of the twentieth century and was popular between roughly 1907 and 1914. The art movement before Cubism was Fauvism, which could explain some of the bright colors used in this new movement. Cubism began with artists Georges Braque and Piscasso. The paintings of this movement were a collection of observations put together into one piece. This creates a shallow space. Flat, geometrical shapes became arbitrary during this movement. This technique caused people to question what they were looking at. Unlike normal paintings, negative space was typically nonexistent in Cubism works. Within this movement were three smaller sections - Analytical Cubism, collage, and Synthetic Cubism. Analytical Cubism involved many views from different angles being put together into one piece. Collages include many pieces being incorporated together. Three-dimensional collages are called assemblages. Around 1912, Synthetic Cubism began to take over. Synthetic Cubism encompasses lively color and boldness. Differences between Analytical and Synthetic Cubism were that Analytical Cubism includes overlapping, similarly-colored objects that defined the work's flatness, while Synthetic Cubism was brighter and more open in its design. Analytical artists were more focused on lines, and Synthetic artists allowed color to be a large factor in their work. The abstract ideas from Cubism were later used by Dadaists, Pop artists, and Surrealists.
A type of art that displays many different environments and that interacts directly with nature. The Earth Art Period occurred during 1960-1980. Before Earth Art, Abstract Expressionism was very popular and evident at the time. After Earth Art, Neo-Expressionism and Post-Modern art became very popular. During the time period of 1960-1980 came about the First Earth Day which was celebrated in 1970. Because of this, earth art became very popular and important. Earth Art is where the landscape in an environment is reshaped by an artist to create a beautiful sense of artwork. This type of art can be create by rocks, salt crystals, concrete pipes, etc. Many times, the most beautiful types of Earth Art are in locations that aren't normally visited. Earth Art is done to allow the audience to feel the beauty of the earth that we live in. It gives us the appreciation for our earth. Some famous artists from this movement include: Walter De Maria, James Turrell, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, and many more. Earth Art is a great way to show appreciation for our wonderful earth.
This period of art ran from about 3000 BC to 30 AD, following the period of Prehistoric Art and preceding the Renaissance. This period is characterized by the various forms of art including sculptures, paintings, and architecture created by the people of ancient Egypt. Hieroglyphics are very important and were the way that the ancient Egyptians communicated and told stories. In this same fashion, much of the art from ancient Egypt tells a story through a series of pictures. Sculptures were often created to honor the different pharaohs and leaders of Egypt. In terms of architecture, the pyramids of ancient Egypt are very well known and characteristic of this period. Overall, Egyptian Art uses more color than prehistoric art and uses much stone. Extravagant pieces of art were often created for the different pharaohs and placed in their tombs which used a lot of gold. The culture of ancient Egypt highly valued life after death, so tombs included a lot of art that focused on this theme.
Artwork that conveys emotion through images of Modern Society. Expressionism often used swaying, swirling, and exaggerated lines/brush strokes. Expressionism was between the time frame of 1905-1933. Before the expressionism movement was Neo-impressionism which was when colors were not mixed on a pallet or on the canvas they placed small dots next to each other until the painting was finished, it is similar to expressionism because they both use broad colors, but they are still quite very different. Surrealism was the art movement right after expressionism. Surrealism was "putting dreams into reality and making it super reality." Surrealism is kind of the opposite as expressionism, expressionism is real life things, with a lot of emotion; and than surrealism is a fake imaginary world. The artists of significance in the Expressionism Art Movement was Vincent Van Gogh, Edvard Munch, and James Ensor. They claimed Expressionism to be a "reenactment of the anxieties of the Modern World." There are a lot of darker or gory scenes especially in Munch's artwork.
French for wild beasts, were a group of artists that gave birth to Fauvism. Fauvism debuted in 1900 and lasted, as a major movement, from 1904-1908. Fauvism came after Post-Impressionism and was followed by Cubism. Fauvism, much like Impressionism, was influenced by the introduction of new synthetic paint pigments. It allowed them to paint outside with many bright colors. The Fauves painted with many vibrant pure colors that did not necessarily match the subject matters they were painting; this was in contrast to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism that used bright colors to depict real life scenes. Fauvism favored bright colors and the elements of their paintings rather than trying to create realistic paintings. The leaders of the Fauves were Henri Matisse and Andre Derain.
This style of architecture existed between 1100 and 1200. This movement was preceded by the Byzantine and Romanesque style. These two movements relate to the Gothic style because they stress the importance of religion. Following the Gothic movement is the Renaissance, which used the technological innovations of Gothic architecture to further the innovations discovered during the Renaissance. The Crusades greatly influenced the development of the Gothic style. The Western world became more educated on the cultures of distant lands. They also became wealthier as a result of furthered trade opportunities. This financial prosperity aided in the construction of Gothic cathedrals. Visual characteristics of Gothic architecture include elaborate and organic decoration, ribbed vaults, exterior buttresses, pointed arches and stained glass windows. These visual characteristics reflect the ideologies that supported this style. The stained glass windows allowed in natural light, which symbolized the transcendence of the earthly realm. The pointed arches allowed for the buildings to be taller, pointing upward towards the heavens. The community effort behind constructing the Gothic cathedrals fostered a civic pride. The size of the cathedrals expressed the community's spiritual devotion
Began in France in about 1870 and continued into the 1880s. This Modern Art movement, like Realism, rejected Renaissance ideals and sought to stand against the official Salon. Impressionist artists sought to capture a split second in time or an "impression." Because of the innovation of the paint tube, Impressionist artists often worked outdoors immersed in their subject matter. Many Impressionists, such as Monet, focused on capturing variations of light and color in nature. In order to do this, artists placed color side by side through optical color mixing rather than actually mixing paints. Manet was one of the first Impressionist influences. Claude Monet was the father of Impressionism, with works including his haystacks and water lilies series. Other Impressionist artists include Pierre - Auguste Renoir, Berthe Morisot, Edgar Degas, and Mary Cassatt. Postimpressionism followed this movement, with artists such as Seurat, Van Gogh, and Cezanne who furthered Impressionist ideas.
An early 16th century movement that came directly after the Renaissance. Mannerists created unrealistic proportions of human figures and did not attempt to depict accurate space. Their work was shockingly different from Renaissance artists because Mannerists main goal was to achieve elegance in a work. They wanted to show off their creativity and distort realistic depictions of life. In pursuit of elegance, artists attempted to paint their figures in an S shape. This style was called serpentinata and was found in most Mannerist paintings. The lack of emotion and goal of elegance made for paintings that were thought to be strange. Most artists painted figures for the sake of elegance and did not care what they were painting as long as it was made elegant. One notable Mannerist painter was Parmigianino who painted distorted, unrealistic paintings such as Madonna dal Collo Longo in 1535. This brief movement ended with the start of the Counter-Reformation and Baroque movement which attempted to put more spiritual meaning back into artwork.
Began during the early 1960s and waned near the end of the decade. Its founders wanted to combat the emotional intensity and complexity of both Abstract Expressionism and Pop Art by producing a new style with simplicity at its core. The art attempted to be completely logical and pure, to the point where a viewer could see and understand each aspect of the work using only basic senses, reason, and classical ideals. Nothing should be hidden or mysterious. To achieve this level of transparency, the artists removed all complicated details and components, including illusions, from their work—thus lending to the name "Minimalism" due to the very few elements actually involved. The art is self-supportive, do it doesn't need any external references or influences to hold its meaning, including the artist. For example, the Minimalist Donald Judd would design his art and then have it manufactured in a factory to remove all traces of human involvement. Minimalistic art visually appears simple, clear, logical, and pure. Since this style is meant to be completely objective, the ideal Minimalist art should be understood by everyone in the same way. Donald Judd was the primary creator of this movement, and other prominent people include Carl Andre and Richard Serra, the creator of the highly controversial Tilted Arc. Just as the pure Minimalism was a reaction to the progressive Pop Art, the hypothetical stylistic pendulum swung to the introduction of Superrealism, the busy, detailed, and representational style which came after Minimalism in history.
Was a slow process and had many different "ancestors" over the centuries before it. Important to note is that the word "modern" was first used to "describe art that was wild and imaginative during the Mannerist period." Also important to Modern Art was the Rnaissance's idea of genius and Rembrandt's emphasis on the way an artist expresses him or herself. The final factors that birthed Modern Art were the replacement of the Baroque with the Classical and Rococo, and the competition of Neoclassicism, Romanticism, and Realism.
Although the years are unclear, it is generally accepted to be in its fullest from the 1860s to the 1970s. It was a time of experimentation and expression. Factors to this era was the evolution of technology in the Industrial Revolution, the Roaring Twenties, assorted World Wars, and the like. These large events are generally accepted as different reasons behind the "wild and imaginative art."
Ranged from 1776-1815. This artistic movement came after Rococo and Classicism and before Romanticism. This movement occurred during The Enlightenment. During this period, artists showed a restrained use of color and a shallow stage space. This movement reflected artist's portrayals of patriotism, sacrifice heroism and even duty. During this period (and the Enlightenment as well) artists were questioning things because of reason and not just accepted something because of faith. This meant they questioned everything, and thought for themselves. This movement had crisp and clean figures offsetting plain backdrops with clear and bright colors. The artwork tended to tell a story (moral one) and teach values. Pictures from this movement were set in classical temples or peaceful landscapes. Some artists during this movement included: Angelica Kauffmann, Jacques - Louis David, and even cool, elegant and restrained sculptures by Antonio Canova.
Began in the 1980s was introduced around the time Germany was split East and West. Kiefer, Anselm (a Geran painter) was one of the prominent figures in this era because his paintings were a direct example of Post-modern art. Post-modern art is more interested in rediscovering the past rather than rejecting it as opposed to the way of the Modern artists who rejected the past and made its way towards abstraction. Postmodern artists want to make clearer images and rather than settling on a point in history, they look at it as a selection of choices that they can choose from. That means, they see more than once choice in their art rather than a single one. On this topic as well, postmodern artists made a return to imaginative and meaningful representational art (which was thought to be impossible by Modern artists)
This movement is the first movement of art that and is characterized by works that can be described as very primitive. During this time, there were not many materials available or techniques developed to assist in creating art, so the works from this time are fairly simplistic. Cave drawings are characteristic of this time as are statues that are carved out of rock. The use of color was minimal and most cave paintings were done in a single color. There are no art movements that precede the Prehistoric period of art, but following are the periods of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman Art.
A 19th century movement that began in France and rejected art, literature, and social organizations as they were. It began in the 1840s and ended in the 1880s. It rejected the historical and mythological subjects of the academies and turned to more common subjects such as peasants. The movement did not shy away from everyday scenes and even embraced the ugly. Realism was intentionally nonconformist and because of the Industrial Revolution and the progress made, was able to market itself without the help of larger institutions. Many depicted man and nature in conflict and had dark, earthy palettes. Artists such as Gustave Courbet, Edouard Manet, Jean-Francois Millet created the prominent works of the time
Means rebirth, art period is one of the biggest, most important art movements there has been. This period in art followed the medieval period and led to the birth of the Baroque period. It was a painting, sculpture and decorative art style which was a distinct style in Italy especially in the town of Florence. The Renaissance period occurred from the 14th to the 17th centuries and is known as the cultural bridge between the middle ages and modern times. The goal of this period was to move away from the religion dominated middle ages and instead turn attention to man itself. Renaissance artists tried to show emotion in their works of art, and often works of art were paintings of people displaying an emotion. The key contributor in this period of art Leonardo Da Vinci, and Michelangelo and Raphael also played significant roles during this art period.
A French art movement that is generally considered to have begun in the late 1600's to early to mid 1700's. It came after the Baroque period, and came before the period of Neoclassicism, which took it's place. It was a counter movement to Baroque art that centralized in France, creating art that was more graceful, free, and more elaborate and fancy than Baroque art had been. It went against the stricter rules of the Baroque period, influencing many aspects of the aesthetic world, including the visual arts, sculpture, architecture, literature, and music. Some of the most important artists from this period include Jean-Antione Watteau, Francois Boucher, and Jean-Honore Fragonard.
A Medieval architecture style that occurred from the 9th-12th century. Started around the same time as the Crusades because they made it safer to travel around Europe and perform pilgrimages to holy places. Also, a time when people thought the world was nearing its end so architecture was focused on depicting God and His judgement. Christ figures were over exaggerated and most of the artwork carved into churches was dark and depressing. This was the beginning of the expression of individuality some artists began marking their names on their work. The architecture inspired by the Romans and consisted of round arches and columns made out of heavy stone and lacked windows making the interiors dark and gloomy. This period was followed by the Gothic style which was known for its large and elaborate windows.
Born at the same time that Neoclassicism was taking place. This was around 1775-1815. The difference between the two movements was that Neoclassism was based on order and logic, and Romanticism rejected these values and instead embraced nature and the inability to control forces. Romanticist artists valued the idea of nature being unable to be controlled. The Industrial and Transportation Revolutions also took place during this time. These revolutions may have provoked a longing for emotion, because the world was centered around reason and logic. Some important Romanticist artists were Theodore Garicault, Eugene Delacroix, and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. These artists commonly used painterly styles of painting to express their work. This involved broad brushstrokes, gradual color changes, and blended color. This helped to convey mystery and invoke emotion in the viewer. The movement that came after Romanticism was that of Realism. Romanticism influenced Realism by valuing what is felt. As a result, Realism highly values what was actually happening, rather than what was felt or what was desirable to happen. Romanticism sometimes left out the grave, horrid details, while Realism artists purposely left those details in the work.
Superrealism, or photorealism, debuted in the late 1960's and early 1970's. It followed Abstract Expressionism and Minimalism and was followed by Post-Modern Art. It came as a counter against Abstract Expressionism and Minimalism. It also stemmed from the prominent invention of photography. Superrealistic art, unlike Minimalist art, is very focused on details and creating art that looks as life-like as possible. For paintings, several layers of paint are placed on top of each other to created reflections and shadows to mimic what a scene would look like in a photo. Also, unlike Abstract Expressionism, Superrealism focused on creating images that were representational and realistic and not putting the artist's feelings into the art. Some famous artists from Superrealism are Richard Estes, Charles Bell, and Duane Hanson.
Spanned from the 1920s-1940s. Movements that occurred before Surrealism that greatly influenced its development are Expressionism and Dadaism. These movements expressed inner feelings and stressed finding new ways of thinking. Surrealism influenced following movements such as Nonrepresentational and Abstract Expressionism. Between 1920 and 1940, the world was in between major wars; experiencing the disillusionment after World War I and setting the stage for World War II. Production became highly mechanized, creating a consumer culture. The study of psychology and the discovery of the unconscious changed the idea of the human mind, which led to the creation of Surrealism. Visual characteristics of Surrealism include irrational subject matter and landscapes that do not follow the rules of perspective. Surrealism realistically depicts the "dream world" and visions of the irrational unconscious. Defining ideologies stem from Sigmund Freud's research on the meaningfulness of dreams. The dream world that occurs in a person's unconscious part of the brain expresses feelings and desires that are suppressed. Surrealism gives the unconscious a voice, liberates impulses and destroys the fabric of normality and reality. Oftentimes, compositions in this style cause the viewer to question reality what was previously assumed in order to fully experience the world. Giorgio de Chirico is considered the forerunner of this movement because his compositions do not follow the rules of perspective. Salvador Dalí is synonymous with Surrealism. His work is a combination of realistic images and bizarre settings. René Magritte put the "real world on trial" by suggesting that everything is not as it seems. Magritte attempted to destroy the fabric of normalcy in order to experience true freedom.
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