American History Ch. 29

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Terms in this set (...)

budget deficit
the amount by which expenses exceed income
capital gains tax
a federal tax paid by businesses and investors when they sell stocks or real estate
conservative
a person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom
contra
Spanish for counterrevolutionary, an anti-Sandinista guerilla force in Nicaragua
discount retailing
selling large quantities of goods at very low prices and trying to sell the goods quickly to turn over their entire inventory in a short period of time
downsizing
reducing a company in size by laying off workers and managers to become more efficient
glasnost
a Soviet policy permitting open discussion of political and social issues and freer dissemination of news and information
grassroots movement
a group of people organizing at the local or community level, away from political or cultural centers
mutual assured
destruction; the strategy assuming that, as long as two countries can destroy each other with nuclear weapons, they will be afraid to use them
perestroika
a policy of economic and government restructuring instituted by Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union in the 1980s
supply side
economics; economic theory that lower taxes will boost the economy as businesses and individuals invest their money, thereby creating higher tax revenue
televangelist
an evangelist who conducts regularly televised religious programs
yuppie
a young, college- educated adult who is employed in a well-paying professional and who lives and works in or near a large city
Tiananmen Square
In May 1989, student protestors called for an end to government corruption and the resignation of Communist Party leaders; the government responded with tanks and troops, killing hundreds
Sunbelt
Movement of large numbers of Americans for jobs in the South and the West; sections where the conservative movement gained political power
Saddam Hussien
President of Iraq, a Sunni, who has launched attacks on Iran and Kuwait. His 1990 attempt to occupy Kuwait set off an international conflict led by the United States, He remained in power until 2003 when the U.S. led an invasion and captured him
Milkhail Gorbachev
Soviet Union President for 1985-1991 who brought an end to the Cold War; reached an agreement with the U.S. in 1987 to eliminate intermediate-range nuclear weapons, reduced military spending to divert money to their struggling economy, and stopped giving
confirmation
the process of supporting a statement by evidence
indicate
to point out, point to, or demonstrate the necessity of
initiative
the right to citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval
liberal
a person who generally believes the government should take an active role in the economy and in social programs but should not dictate social behavior
orientation
position relative to a standard
retain
to keep in possession
stability
a state of peace; free from social unrest
via
to have come by way of or through
visible
what can be seen
William F. Buckley
Conservative who launched the conservative National Review magazine in 1955 which helped restore conservative ideas in America; founded Young Americans for Freedom in 1960; and started a conservative TV talk show, Firing Line, in 1966
Billy Graham
An Evangelist fundamentalism preacher who gained a wide following in the 1950s with his appearances across the country and overseas during and after the war. He would commonly appear at religious rallies and allowed people to connect with and appreciate religion even more, causing thousands to attend his sermons. His prominence was so large that in 1996, he was also awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.
Jerry Falwell
Leader of the Religious Right Fundamentalist Christians, a group that supported Reagan; rallying cry was "family values", anti-abortion, favored prayer in schools
Moral Majority
A movement begun in the early 1980's among religious conservatives that supported primarily conservative Republicans opposed to abortion, communism and liberalism.
Reaganomics
Ronald Reagan's economic beliefs that a capitalist system free from taxation and government involvement would be most productive
Iran-Contra scandal
A major scandal of Reagan's second term that involved shipping arms to Iran to free hostages and diverting the money from the sale of these weapons to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
Mothers Against Drunk Driving
Was found to try stop under age drinking and drunk driving in general in 1980
AIDS
A serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles.
Stonewall Riot
Brian the spark a new sense of collective identity among many gays and lesbians and touched off a new movement for both civil rights and liberation.
American Association of Retired Persons
organization that monitors issues of concern to older Americans.
Boris Yeltsin
President of the Russian Republic in 1991. Helped end the USSR and force Gorbachev to resign.
H. Ross Perot
who was the third party candidate in the 1992 election; he got 19% fo the vote; the most for any independent since Teddy Roosevelt in 1912