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A form of communication which has much in common with modern public speaking is


Translating ideas and images in the speaker's mind into verbal or nonverbal messages that an
audience can understand is termed


One of the ways that public speaking and conversation are different is that public speaking is

more formal

When an audience member translates the speaker's verbal and nonverbal messages into
information and ideas, this process is known as


The environment or situation in which a speech occurs is termed


In the communication process, what is the term for something that interferes with the
communication process?


A speech that is designed to teach, define, illustrate, clarify, or elaborate on a topic reflects

an informative speech purpose

Tara was really nervous before her final class speech, but she just kept concentrating on how
important she believed her message to be. She felt convinced in her message, and that
conviction finally helped her to dispel her nervousness before the presentation. Which tip
about developing confidence in public speaking does this example reflect?

focus on the message rather than on your fear

The process called ________ reduces communication apprehension through muscle relaxation techniques.

systematic desensitization

_________ focuses on changing negatively held beliefs a speaker has about him- or herself that are based primarily on specific irrational beliefs.

cognitive restructuring

This method of anxiety management suggests that because apprehension toward public speaking is learned it can be unlearned.

cognitive restructuring

If you learn how to perform successfully, your apprehension will be reduced by using:

skills training

What is ethnocentrism?

the attitude that one's own cultural approach is superior to those from other cultures

Trying to determine what an audience believes or thinks about a speech topic is termed

psychological analysis

An examination by the speaker of the time and place of the speech, size of the expected
audience, and the speaking occasion is

a situational analysis

Collecting information about an audience concerning their age range, gender, and ethnicity is
part of

a demographic analysis

Brent was presenting a speech on childhood diabetes, a disease that he had suffered from for
years. He decided not to mention this fact to his audience. According to your text, which
statement concerning Brent's speech is more correct?

a speaker's personal experience makes him more credible to his audience

The specific group of audience members that you, as a speaker, most wish to address or
influence is your

target audience

The speaker's outline which contains the specific purpose, the introduction, all main ideas with supporting material, and a conclusion is

the preparation outline

The preparation outline is typically used by a speaker during the speech.


Considering the needs, interests, and expectations of listeners during the entire speech
preparation process is called

being audience-centered

The Catalog of U.S. Government Publications and the American Statistics Index are described in your textbook as examples of

government documents

It is necessary to determine what individual or organization is responsible for a website in
order to determine its


When someone, who is a recognized authority in a specialized area, states his/her opinion,
this is considered

expert testimony

What are important guidelines for the use of statistics in a speech?

use reputable, authoritative, unbiased sources for your statistics

In her presentation to the school board about plans for the new physical fitness facility, Ms.
Anderson described the various workout areas, gyms, locker rooms, and physical therapy
facilities. Which organizational pattern was Ms. Anderson using in her presentation?


The pattern of speech organization used in a speech topic that progresses in order of time


The linear organizational pattern that categorizes a speech by dividing a subject into natural parts or divisions is called:


A linear logic in which the first point results in the second is:

cause and effect

When you save the most important material for last, you are using the principle of


When divided or partitioned, main points must have a minimum of _____________ subpoints.


The main reason to use previews, summaries, and signposts is to

keep your audience on track with your speech

When you state a main idea, cite the source, present the material, and then explain how the
material supports the main idea, you are

integrating supporting materials smoothly

It is important in an introduction to build trust with the audience, to have them believe you
and like you. This is known as speaker


The final step in an introduction is to provide your audience with an overview of your speech. This step is known as

a preview

The nineteenth-century practice of delivering famous speeches from history, instead of writing
one's own speeches, is


Hypothetical illustrations, description, and opinions are considered to be

soft evidence

Transitions, previews, and summaries are all examples of


Deanna makes the claim in her persuasive speech that unregulated car emissions in major
urban areas worldwide contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer, which contributes to
global warming. Which type of organizational pattern is reflected in this example?


The principle of recency means that an audience will best remember your last supporting


Television, radio, and computers are all:


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