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Cyclospora cayetanensis (C. parvum is not)
oocyst wall is autofluorescent when vied bu UV microscopy
illness from this is self-limiting in immunosufficient persons, however, immunodeificient persons will experience severe diarrhea, fever, nausea, abdominal discomfort & weight loss. AIDS patients are very susceptible.
modified safranin stain
developed by CDC
uses microwave oven to heat stain
permits oocyst to stain uniformly & consistently
serological test, important in detecting toxoplasmosis in neonates (IgM antibodies)
toxoplasma gondii diagnosed by what test?
eosinophilia may occur even in asymptomatic patients, charcot leyden crystals frequently seen
serum from patient who has has toxoplasmosis affects t. gondii organisms so they lose their affinity for methylene blue stain (not routinely used in clinical labs- older method to diagnose)
Sabin-Feldman dye test
characteristic feature of Enterocytozoon bieneusi
spores containing a polar tubule, which is an extrusion mechanism for injecting infective spore contents into host cells; spores are very resistant
definitive diagnosis for Enterocytozoon bieneusi
electron microscope often required to recognize & identify organisms (not practical in clinical lab)
diagnosed by modified trichome stain, serological testing not useful with AIDS patients (poor antibody response)
List 3 flagellates with NO cyst stage
L. tropica major
wet or rural cutaneous leishmaniasis (leishmania tropica complex)
produces wet sore; lower limbs
found in rural areas
L. tropica minor
dry or urban cutaneous leishmaniasis
produces dry sore; facial area
found in urban areas
Montenegro skin test
diagnosis of Leishmania Tropica complex , delayed hypersensitivity reaction to a suspension of killed promstigotes administered intradermally; not species specific
definitive diagnosis of leishmania tropica complex
demonstration of amastigotes in tissues or promastigotes in culture
L. mexicana complex
painless lesions usually occur singly; predominantly on ear; often heals spontaneously.
Chiclero ulcer - development of nodules which resemble leprosy
Death usually occurs due to secondary infection/malnutrition
Asexual (except P. falciparum)
Exoerythrocytic phase - primarily occurs in the liver
life cycle of plasmodium species
schizont with merozoites
merozoites from ruptured schizont
diagnostic stages of plasmodium species
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