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Cryptosporidium parvum - oocysts stain red against blue background

acid fast positive

Cyclospora cayetanensis - stain light pink to dark red, or not at all

acid fast variable

Cyclospora cayetanensis (C. parvum is not)

oocyst wall is autofluorescent when vied bu UV microscopy

Cyclospora cayetanensis

common in AIDS patients, but not limited to immunocompromised persons

Cryptosporidium parvum

illness from this is self-limiting in immunosufficient persons, however, immunodeificient persons will experience severe diarrhea, fever, nausea, abdominal discomfort & weight loss. AIDS patients are very susceptible.

Cyclospora cayetanensis

modified safranin stain

diagnostic stage of Cryptosporidium parvum

mature & immature oocyst

diagnostic stage of Cyclospora cayetanensis


diagnostic stage of Isospora belli

immature oocyst


infective stage of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Isospora belli

modified safranin stain

developed by CDC
uses microwave oven to heat stain
permits oocyst to stain uniformly & consistently

Isospora belli

oppurtunistic infection in AIDs patients

Isospora belli, sporoblasts in oocyst stain deep red; may also see sporocysts

acid fast positive

Toxoplasma gondii

definitive host is a cat

serological test, important in detecting toxoplasmosis in neonates (IgM antibodies)

toxoplasma gondii diagnosed by what test?


infective stage of toxoplasma gondii

Isospora belli

eosinophilia may occur even in asymptomatic patients, charcot leyden crystals frequently seen

toxoplasma gondii

can cause death of fetus

serum from patient who has has toxoplasmosis affects t. gondii organisms so they lose their affinity for methylene blue stain (not routinely used in clinical labs- older method to diagnose)

Sabin-Feldman dye test

Pneumocystis jiroveci

causative agent of atypical interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PCP)

Pneumocystis jiroveci

silver stain

Enterocytozoon bieneusi

most common microsporidian causing enteritis in AIDS patients

characteristic feature of Enterocytozoon bieneusi

spores containing a polar tubule, which is an extrusion mechanism for injecting infective spore contents into host cells; spores are very resistant

definitive diagnosis for Enterocytozoon bieneusi

electron microscope often required to recognize & identify organisms (not practical in clinical lab)

Enterocytozoon bieneusi

diagnosed by modified trichome stain, serological testing not useful with AIDS patients (poor antibody response)

yes, 4-6 um

is cryptosporidium parvum acid fast? size?

variable, 8-10 um

is cyclospora cayetanesis acid fast? size?


is isospora belli acid fast?

not usually

is enterocytozoon bieneusi acid fast?

Blastocystis hominis

strictly anaerobic & normally required bacteria for growth

Blastocystis hominis

protozoan of unclear classification

Blastocystis hominis

characterized by a large central body, that usually resembles a vacuole

Blastocystis hominiss

organism should be quantitated (rare, few, moderate, or many)

list 3 flagellates that are pathogenic

Trichomonas vaginalis
Dientamoeba fragilis
Giardia lamblia

List 3 flagellates with NO cyst stage

Trichomonas vaginalis
Trichomonas hominis
dientamoeba fragilis

specific gravity of zinc sulfate flotation technique


L. tropica major

wet or rural cutaneous leishmaniasis (leishmania tropica complex)
produces wet sore; lower limbs
found in rural areas

L. tropica minor

dry or urban cutaneous leishmaniasis
produces dry sore; facial area
found in urban areas

Montenegro skin test

diagnosis of Leishmania Tropica complex , delayed hypersensitivity reaction to a suspension of killed promstigotes administered intradermally; not species specific

definitive diagnosis of leishmania tropica complex

demonstration of amastigotes in tissues or promastigotes in culture

L. braziliensis complex

results in progressive ulceration & erosion of mucosal linings

L. mexicana complex

painless lesions usually occur singly; predominantly on ear; often heals spontaneously.

Chiclero ulcer - development of nodules which resemble leprosy
Death usually occurs due to secondary infection/malnutrition

Asexual (except P. falciparum)
Erythrocytic phase
Exoerythrocytic phase - primarily occurs in the liver

life cycle of plasmodium species

schizont with merozoites
merozoites from ruptured schizont

diagnostic stages of plasmodium species

tetrad formation "maltese cross"
no malarial pigment
RBCs not enlarged or pale
no stippling
no malarial pigment

how babesia differs from plasmodium

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