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Terms in this set (17)
What is puberty?
- Stage of development characterized by reaching sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce
- Onset of adolescence coincides with advent of puberty
What are the Primary sex characteristics for Females?
What are the Primary sex characteristics for Males?
What are the Secondary sex characteristics?
- Breast development, deepening of the male voice, and the appearance of facial, pubic, and underarm hair
- Not involved in reproduction
How are adolescent growth spurts different in Boys ?
Growth spurt at age 12
Peak reached 2 years later
Gain 14 ½ inches in height
Eventually boys become taller and heavier than girls
Boys' shoulders get broader
How are adolescent growth spurts different in Girls?
Girls' growth spurt at age 10
Girls gain a little more than 13 inches in height; spurt in weight continues for 2 years after growth spurt begins
Hips get wider due to having twice as much body fat as boys
Girls' body shape more rounded
What are the pubertal changes in Girls?
The pituitary gland signals the ovaries to vastly increase estrogen production at puberty.
Estrogen may stimulate growth of breast tissue beginning at age 9 (breast buds).
Breasts reach full size in about 3 years.
Mammary glands are not fully mature until a woman has a baby
Estrogen also helps widening of pelvis and rounding of hips.
At about age 11, girls' adrenal glands produce small amounts of androgens that contribute to development of underarm and pubic hair.
Estrogen causes the labia, vagina, and uterus to develop during puberty.
Androgens cause the clitoris to develop
Vaginal lining varies in thickness according to the amount of estrogen in the bloodstream.
Estrogen brakes the female growth spurt before the ending of the male growth spurt.
What are the pubertal changes in Boys?
Pituitary gland stimulates the testes to increase output of testosterone.
First sign of puberty is accelerated growth of the testes, which begins at about 11½ years old.
Testicular growth accelerates testosterone production and other pubertal changes.
Penis begins a spurt of accelerated growth about a year later
Underarm hair appears about age 15.
Facial hair first appears on upper lip
Full shaving occurs in half of American boys at age 17
Voice deepens at age 14 or 15 because of the growth of the "voice box" or larynx and the lengthening of the vocal cords.
Testosterone triggers development of acne.
Boys more prone to acne
Males have erections from infancy but not frequent until age 13 or 14, resulting in nocturnal emissions.
Mature sperm found in ejaculatory emissions by age 15
Ability to ejaculate precedes presence of mature sperm
Half of all boys experience gynecomastia (enlargement of the breasts), which declines in a year or two.
At 20 to 21, young men stop growing taller because testosterone causes epiphyseal closure, which prevents the long bones from making further gains in length
What is "menarche" and when does it typically occur?
Occurs between 11 - 14
When does ovulation typically begin?
Typically begins 12 to 18 months after menarche
How are early and late maturation different in Girls?
Early-maturing girls tend to have lower self-esteem than male counterparts
Early-maturing girls are conspicuous with height and developing breasts
-Even worse if development started in elementary school
-May be teased for it and may get lower grades
How early and late maturation different in Boys?
Early-maturing boys tend to be more popular than late-maturing boys and more likely the leaders in their school
Some early-maturing boys engage in delinquency and aggression as well as sexual encounters they may not be prepared for
What is anorexia nervosa?
Life-threatening eating disorder characterized by extreme fear of being heavy, dramatic weight loss, a distorted body image, and resistance to eating enough to maintain a healthful weight
What is the ratio of female to male patients?
10 to 1
What are the characteristics of females with anorexia?
Drop 25% of their body weight within a year, resulting in abnormalities in the endocrine system that prevent ovulation
General health declines
Every system in the body is affected, including respiratory and cardiovascular systems
At risk for premature development of osteoporosis
Mortality rate is between 4% and 5%
What is Bulimia Nervosa?
Cyclical binge eating and purging
May include strict dieting
Fasting, laxatives, and demanding exercise regime
What types of treatment are typically used for eating disorders?
Anorexia may require hospitalization and tube feeding.
Antidepressants are commonly used because eating disorders oftentimes combine with depression.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy has been used to help anorexic and bulimic individuals challenge their perfectionism and distorted body images and to reinforce appropriate eating behaviors
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