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Ethics in America DSST
Terms in this set (169)
The duty to help others in need.
The duty to not harm others. This includes acts committed or omitted. One example would be if a doctor forgot to give a patient the correct care.
That they are self-evident or obvious. He called them prima facie duties.
What did WD Ross believe about certain basic moral principles?
Problem with prima facie duties
They may not be self-evident to those who are intellectually immature or those who haven't thought about it enough.
From Thomas Aquinas, and is used to describe situations where harm is induced to cause good. It is controversial, especially among utilitarians.
We should help others in danger
If there is little risk and even if it is not in our self-interest.
He wrote The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law, which used 4 principles to determine legitimacy of government intervention in individual freedom.
The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law
1. The Harm Principle (originally from John Stuart Mill)
2. The Offence Principle
4. Legal Moralism
Having a person or the government do what they think is best for you, even if it goes against your wishes. Feinberg rejected this hard, where competent adults would have their liberty restricted to prevent them from harming themselves.
Governments are allowed to prohibit conduct that seriously offends others.
It allows the prohibition of immoral behavior, even if nobody is harmed or offended. One example would be a community banning homosexual acts.
Is the existence of multiple legal systems within one (human) population and/or geographic area.
Is the assumption there are moral truths, but that they do not form a body of coherent and consistent truths as those found in the sciences or mathematic approach.
Through the virtue of an implied contract. This is common sense morality.
Why should parents take care of their kids?
The state will intervene & the child no longer owes the parent a duty of obedience.
What happens if the parent doesn't act in the best interests of the child?
That are close to us
We have a duty of special concern to those...?
Best interest principle
When educators, judges, and doctors deal with children, they should follow this...
Beneficence, Non-maleficence, justice, and autonomy
According to the medical profession, what are the 4 main guiding ethical principles derived from common morality?
Doctors have to inform patients of medical risks/benefits who then make an informed decision which signifies their..?
Owe their patients a duty of care..?
Issues business ethics describe
Corporate governance, accurate accounting and audits, fair labor practices and environmental management.
Fair labor practices
Are essential to ensure that workers are provided with a safe and humane working environment and compensated with a fair wage.
Is development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Many business and political leaders oppose environmental sustainability for...?
In hiring employees, companies should have clear-cut hiring policies that prohibit any form of...
US Patriot Act
Enacted in 2001, was designed to considerably increase the surveillance and investigative powers of local law enforcement agencies, but it has been argued that since it was hastily introduced, it lacks the normal checks and balances that safeguard civil liberties.
A punishment that doesn't fit the crime would be an example of..
Save lives or prevent considerable injury.
Lawyers normally have a strict duty of confidentiality to clients but this duty can be breached where the lawyer believes that the information revealed will...
It is the legal duty of one party to act in the interests of the other party.
A violation of the state, where a law has been broken
The restoration of society's moral balance through punishment, the deterrence of further illegal behavior, and the protection of the community.
Where the violation is seen as against the person rather than the State and solutions are sought between the offender, victim, and community in an attempt to encourage healing and reconciliation.
Rights of those whose property is taken.
One of the most important arguments against reducing economic inequality by economic redistribution is that it violates..
Was a hedonist that believed that "good" is pleasure, freedom from pain and a troubled mind.
Grecian philosopher who talked about stoicism. He said to live a happy virtuous life one should do what is in accordance with nature.
Freedom of information act
Lays down the rules for persons to obtain records of federal government agencies
Their duty of care to their employees
In 1999, the Board of Enron decided to waive the company's Code Of Ethics in order to hide huge amounts of debt in off-balance sheet deals, thereby breaking...
Sarbanes-Oxley Act in 2002
The dramatic downfall of companies like Enron was precipitated by unethical financial reporting by their accountants and this led to the enactment of the...
Is "paternalistic" and breaches the human rights of the people
Many experts believe that economic development is one way to control..
Ethical issues surrounding sweat shops
Do the individuals have the power of autonomy (choice) to work at the sweat shops because they are in desperate need of a job.
The Roe vs. Wade abortion rights case gives a woman the right of..
Principle of justice
Under this there should be equal treatment of equals. So, if only affluent women could afford abortions, then equality would not be achieved. Within a biomedical context refers to equal treatment of equal persons and fair allocation of resources..
Always wrong, always right, and it depends
With regards to suicide, the 3 viewpoints are..
May cause unjustified harm to those left behind
It can be argued that being autonomous individuals, we should be able to choose how we live or die but some philosophers believe that this right is not absolute and that we must consider the consequences of our actions. This is because suicide...
Involuntary active euthanasia is..
Voluntary passive euthanasia
Occurs when a person refuses medical treatment that could save their life. Therefore, a person's right to autonomy is respected.
Kill the disabled and elderly.
People fear that if active euthanasia is acceptable, it will soon be used to..
Some believe in a flat tax regardless of income. Others support a graduated system based on..
Reverse discrimination is a denial of rights for..
Support passive resistance as a way of dealing with our problems.
Policy of deterrence
Threatening to retaliate and inflict unacceptable damage on an adversary in order to discourage attack. To support the deterrence strategy, large stockpiles of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons were maintained by the US during the Cold War.
Whether entering into war is justifiable
Medieval philosophers believed that before establishing war, the Law to War, or Jus Ad Bellum, should be consulted to determine..
Some people think the United Nations has the authority to approve...
Are citizens you don't want to kill during war.
Health of the land
According to Leopold, a land ethic reflects a conviction of individual responsibility for the..
Believed that land owners were the biggest obstacle to conservation efforts on private land. He thought that individual ethics (land ethic) were needed to motivate land owners and that economic incentives and legal restrictions were ineffective.
Toxic waste grounds are primarily located in minority neighborhoods
Peter Singer calls discrimination against animals..
Because it is a waste of money that could otherwise and some philosophers believe that the strongest case against human cloning is the argument of..
Divine Command Theory
Is moral objectivism. Anything God says is objectively true or false if he didn't say it
2 versions of Divine Command Theory
The first is that moral rights and wrongs are independent of God's will and the other is that morality is logically linked to God's will and so God's commands make things right or wrong.
The aim of Islamic law
Was to ensure the well being of the community in a situation where both the ruler and his subjects were believed to be motivated to obey the law and avoid punishment in Hell. Islamic thought tends not to emphasize the rights of human beings but rather their duties to obey God's perfect law
The first four commandments relate to the actions of individuals and God, whereas the other six govern the relations between individuals.
2 problems with the divine command theory
1) not everyone believes in God's existence and 2) the determination of precisely what God's law consists of.
The type of justice meted out in the Bible is..
An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth
The Bible contains a well known reference to retributive justice...
Restorative and reparative justice
Is based on the premise that a crime represents a debt owed not only to the state, but to the victim, the victim's family and to the community as a whole
Wealth and property should be shared.
The three parables of the Good Samaritan, the rich fool, and the rich man and Lazarus show that..
The covenant in relation to the Bible
Indicates an agreement between an individual and God, with blessings in exchange for obedience.
Was a theologian and philosopher who taught that the desire for happiness was the basis of philosophy.
Believe that each person must choose their own way without the guidance of universal, objective standards.
Believes that God created us but then left us on our own
Jean Paul Sartre
Most important philosopher of Existentialism..
Generally considered the founder of modern Existentialism
Principle of Forfeiture
Allows for killing people in cases of self-defense or when that person has threatened the life of someone else.
An ancient Stoic philosopher who believed that happiness in life could be attained by living a virtuous life according to Nature.
Moral teachings of Epictetus
Stresses the fundamental rule that we must understand that some things are within our control and some things are not. That through this understanding, we could attain inner peace and external effectiveness.
Three key areas of study
According to Epictetus are the discipline of assent, the discipline of desire, and the discipline of action.
Natural law theorists
Believe that all species, including humans, have an inherent nature demonstrated by typical characteristics of behavior that are normal for that species
Virtuous acts will benefit us by ensuring a favorable rebirth. Believes in transmigration of souls, and that how a person lives determines how that person will be reborn in their next life.
Studied six of the world's largest religions and wrote the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. He wanted to discover religion's impact on social change. He believed that Protestantism's "Work Ethic" played a big part in the development of capitalism in the West, whereas Eastern religions such as Hinduism were barriers to capitalism.'
Is a collection of Confucius's discourses with his disciples, collected approximately seventy years after his death.
The primary special texts of early Confucianism.
Virtue of Jen
Confucius's central teaching translated as goodness or humaneness, it is the inward expression of Confucian ideals
Common Native American Belief
There is an unseen spirit world that shares the world with humans.
Native American Taboo
A menstruating woman is thought to have special powers. Some believed her gaze could destroy the magic of hunting weapons and that her mere presence in a forest could drive game away permanently.
A practice among certain basic religions around the world. It recognizes a relationship between a certain kind of animal and a group of people. The animal becomes sacred to that group and can only be killed under specific ritual conditions.
St. Thomas Aquinas
Was a 13th Century philosopher who believed that God's will is affected by reason and therefore natural law can be considered a guide for human social conduct that is not based on revelations. Aquinas believed that God did not just will anything without reason but based his decisions on it. Also not all war was wrong and that if a war met certain criteria (just war tradition), it was justified.
God and His honor
According to Aquinas, in order to determine whether an act is good or evil, one must look to the result of the act, and actions are good if they promote the purpose of...
From which ethical norms are derived, originates from a holistic understanding of the nature of humans in the context of the universe, and because humans have a rational nature, their morality is driven by reason.
Was a 17th Century philosopher whose social contract theory is based upon self-interest.
Hobbes, Rousseau, and Locke
Were similar in their ideas of a Social Contract which was the basis of all civilization
Hobbes believed that virtues such as modesty and equity promoted...
Fear of Death
According to Thomas Hobbes, the passions that incline men to peace are..
Hobbes believed the most pervasive right is that of...
Moral egoism & ethical egoism
Doing what we believe to be the best for us in our own self-interest is called..
Locke believed that since humans can reason, they can deduce the Natural Laws and hence have an independent responsibility to..
Believed that our ideas are sourced from our experiences which consist of primary and secondary elements. For example, a primary element of a flower is the size of the flower, whereas the secondary element is its fragrance.
According to Locke, the primary objective of the social contract is the protection of...
Protection of life, liberty and property.
Locke believed that the primary reason men leave the state of nature and enter into civil society is to obtain..
Immanuel Kant's general theory on ethics was that humans are subject to hypothetical and...
(Kant) The categorical imperative binds rational human beings to act in a moral way, simply because we are rational beings. For example, when we are deciding how to act in a particular situation, we must ask whether we would be prepared for every person to follow that rule all the time - thereby making it a...
Act in such a way that you always treat humanity... never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end
Believed that the universal laws and moral rules within it were absolute, regardless of the circumstances. For example, Kant thought that lying was always wrong, regardless of the circumstances. This law was derived from a categorical imperative.
Kant believed that when we act, the morality of our actions depends on our intentions, rather than the...
Central concept in Kant's theory
Reason is the key in making moral judgments and these moral rules are consistently binding on everyone all the time
A philosopher who used hypothetical social contracts to describe the Original Position where humans would be behind a veil of ignorance to ensure impartiality in the creation of moral principles. For example, they would now know their social status or race and they would not have yet joined any societal groups.
Rawls believed that economic inequality would lead to..
Is the cornerstone of King's philosophy. He believed that this would achieve equal rights for the black people of America.
King's Letter from Birmingham Jail
Was to respond to criticism by white religious leaders to King's boycott of stores in Birmingham.
Martin Luther King
believed that the central, universal, and inalienable human right we all posses was the right to justice. And the unjust law is no law at all and should not be obeyed.
18th Century philosopher who influenced the American revolution with his theory of the social contract whereby governments are given the right to rule society in exchange for protecting the rights and equality of all citizens, and if they fail to do so, then the contract is breached and the people have the right to replace the rulers.
Is not a philosophy that tells you how you should live your life; it merely states that our moral judgements express our feelings. Emotivism says that there are no moral truths and that statements like "abortion is wrong" or "lying is always wrong" merely state our feelings about lying or abortion and can't be true or false.
Epicurus was a Greek philosopher who theorized that upon death we no longer exist and so should not fear the Gods and founded..
Immanuel Kant was the first philosopher to define..
The Philosophy of Loyalty
In this book Josiah Royce contended that loyalty was the cohesive principle of all ethical behavior and social practice
Adult children do not have any moral obligation to support their elderly parents.
The political and social norms of the early eighteenth century were heavily questioned by members of the intellectual movement known as..
Is a philosophical theory that states that the moral course of action is the one which maximizes the total well-being of all humans, each of whom have an equal right to be included. Consequentialist morality
John Stuart Mill
Defines the greatest happiness principle as holding actions right in proportion where they promote happiness and wrong where they promote the reverse
In this book John Stuart Mill claims that governments have the moral right to limit people's liberty only when it is necessary to prevent them from harming others. This is called Mill's Harm Principle
Theorized that an act is only morally wrong if it reduced overall happiness. This is the principle of utility
Is defined as the morally right act and the one that will bring the greatest increase in overall well-being.
Act utilitarianism does not assess the moral rightness or wrongness of the types of acts. This is because act utilitarians will say it depends on the...
Is a form of utilitarianism that says actions are moral when they conform to the rules that lead to the greatest good
Believed that women's decisions are not based on abstract concepts of morality but on the relationships they build. Believed that women lean more towards the love and care mentality when it comes to morality rather than the justice mentality followed by men.
Kohlberg and Aristotle
Many philosophers have considered women to be morally inferior including...
Believes that a caring person will try to resolve conflicts through compromise in an attempt to create a just and fair solution for all.
Best known for believing in following through on your beliefs even though everyone else thinks that you are wrong and pursuing knowledge even when opposed
According to Socrates, virtue is....?
In his dialogue Crito, introduced the concept of the Social Contract, whereby a citizen is obligated to obey the laws of the city.
Socrates also believed that there was a parent-child relationship between the State and the...?
Plato believed that justice was achieved when a society's various social classes performed their duties and lived in...
Issue of Liberty and Freedom
On this issue Plato felt that the ideal was a happy medium between slavery and license. License describes a situation of excess liberty. There would be chaos and a lack of law and order, which means that the people are not really free at all because they would be victims of force and dominated by the strong.
Socrates in Plato's Republic
No ruler acts for his own interests but instead acts only for the best interests of his subjects. Socrates said this in response to Thrasymachus who believed that rulers make laws only to protect their own self interests.
Were a category of teachers who specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric for the purpose of teaching aretê — excellence, or virtue — predominantly to young statesmen and nobility.
Individuals are selfish and not moderated by moral rules. He had a very cynical viewpoint on human nature. He felt that humans are too self-interested in achieving glory rather than being bound by moral rules.
Is a philosopher who believed that individuals must exist for their own self-interest in order to achieve greatest happiness, which is the highest moral purpose in life. Was an anarchist -- The main difficulty with her philosophy is that she seems to propound that one should never serve another.
Scottish philosopher who believed that our moral actions were guided not by reason but by our feelings. Hume believed that when we performed a virtuous act, we received a feeling of pleasure and on performing a vicious act, we would receive a feeling of pain.
Means an act of, or a general inclination towards, charity.
The Melian Dialogue
Contained in Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, is an account of the confrontation between the people of Melos, a colony of Sparta, and the Athenians in 416-415 BC. Melos was a neutral island in the Peloponnese just east of Sparta; the Athenians wanted to conquer the island to impose a greater threat over the Spartans. In general, "the Dialogue is formally not about the morality of the eventual execution, but about the Melian response to the Athenians' first demand, that Melos should submit."
Wrote the Declaration of Independence in which he stated that all men were created equal, had the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness and that these rights were self-evident.
Declaration of Human Rights
The right to political participation is included in the UN's Universal...?
According to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), decisions relating to children fall under the Principle of...
We should carry out the act that will maximize the total well-being (or the smallest decrease in well-being) of all affected.
One utilitarian argument for defending pornography is that it can increase sexual satisfaction for couples by providing heightened...
What is right or wrong is the same for everyone.
Doctors take oath to do no harm, assisting in suicides is wrong..
The Doctrine that pleasure is the chief good in life.
Doctrine of Double Effect
Some harm results from a good action. Ex: chemo is harmful but necessary.
An active effort to improve the employment or educational opportunities of members of minority groups and women; A similar effort to promote the rights or progress of other disadvantaged persons
System of beliefs which places human interests above the interests of everything else, including animals and plants
If the good consequences of an action outweigh the bad consequences, the act is morally right. Defines rightness of an act based on its outcome.
An agreement which validates the moral principles agreed upon
Believe it is morally correct to do what we believe is in our own self-interest
Kant believed that people have dignity because they are rational agents
The basis of Aristotle's ethics is...?
Usury (lending money)
Two elements of Aristotle's political teaching affected political institutions for many centuries: his justification of slavery and his condemnation of...?
Aristotle propounded that there were 2 forms of justice, namely universal and...?
Aristotle believed that moral excellence comes about as the result of...?
Aristotle propounded that by using the Doctrine of the Mean (the golden mean), actions could be determined according to the circumstances of each situation and therefore would promote...?
The goal for all humans is happiness, which he classified as a rational activity, possessed with Arete and felt that some moral laws were absolute; for example, the prohibition against murder and theft.
Believed that a person that was intellectually disabled was inferior to someone with high intellect,
It is right and natural for intelligent person to exploit or suppress intellectually disabled person,
Believed superior people could dominate and exploit the weak (Slave Morality)
Book of Exodus
Lays down the moral laws and punishments
Is defined as an ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, rather than based on the consequences of the action.
Ethics guiding biomedical and behavioral research involving humans. Respect for Persons - all volunteers are treated as individuals and are entitled to protection
His theory of law as integrity, in which judges interpret the law in terms of consistent moral principles, especially justice and fairness, is among the most influential contemporary theories about the nature of law.
Accuracy or facts
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