IB psychology

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six types of research methods
-Experiments
-Case studies
-Observational studies
-Interviews
-surveys / questionnaires
-Correlational studies
triangulation
using two or more research methods to look at the same thing
Principles that define the BLOA
1. behavior can be genetically inherited
2. Animal research can inform human behavior
3. There are biological correlates of behavior
How BLOA is studied (research methods )
Experiments and case studies
Raine et Al
-Aim: if murderers who plead mot - guilty for reasons of temporary insanity (NGRIs) had brain abnormalities

-Used PET Scans:
These scans showed that NGRIs had less activity in prefrontal cortex (self-control and emotion), lower activity in the amygdala and medial temporal hippocampus (lack of inhibition of violent behavior, fearlessness, failure to learn consequences)

-This study linked the amygdala with crime
Maguire et al
-Hypothesized that taxi drivers in london would have different hippocampi structure compared to non- taxi cab drivers

-Used 16 healthy right handed men who had at least been taxi drivers for 1.5 years

-Used MRI
Left and right hippocampi were larger and probably a redistribution of grey matter due to frequent use of spatial memory skills

-Correlation of environmental enrichment on neuroplasticity
Rosenzweig and Bennett (1972)
-Investigates the effects of a deprived or enriched environment on neuroplasticity

-Aim:
To investigate the effects of a deprived or enriched environment on neuroplasticity, in particular, the development of neurons in the cerebral cortex

-Method:
-participants = rats

-IV: type of environment that the rats were exposed to
Stimulating with different toys
Deprived environment with no toys

-DV: weight of rats brains, showing the amount of brain plasticity
Rats separated and exposed to the two environments for 30-60 days before being euthanized

-Results:
Rats in the stimulating environment had a thicker cortex and heavier frontal lobes compared to rats in the deprived environment

-Conclusion:
May have resulted from the exposure to the toys in stimulating env. Which may have helped to develop neural connections in the rats' brains.
Henry Milison
-Had tissue from his temporal lobe and hippocampus removed due to seizures

-Results:
-he could not form any new memories (anterograde amnesia)

-Could not transfer new semantic and episodic memories into LTM

-COULD form new long term procedural memories

-He could carry on a normal conversation but would forget about the conversation almost immediately (had some working memory)

-Because he only had damage to part of his brain and only lost some specific types of memory, we can assume memory is stored in multiple places

-MRI scans allowed researchers to correlate certain brain areas and memory.
-They could also see the extent of the brain damage

-Things we learn from HM:
-Hippocampus must play important role in converting memories of experiences from STM to LTM

-He was able to keep some memories of before the surgery, suggesting that the medial temporal region w/ the hippocampus is not the place of permanent memory storage.
Hallucinating Monks- Kasamatsu and Hirai
-Aim: How does sensory deprivation affect the brain?

-Buddhist monks went on a 3 day journey to the mountains without eating, drinking or talking and were exposed to cold weather.

-After 2 days, the monks began to hallucinate about ancient ancestors

-Results:
-Blood tests after the hallucinations show high serotonin levels

-The higher serotonin levels activated the hypothalamus and frontal cortex (producing hallucinations)

-Concluded that sensory deprivation triggered increased levels of serotonin.
Christensen and Burrows (1990)
-Aim: investigate whether better diet can stabilize seratonin that in turn stabilize mood

-Methods
-20 participants
-Only used participants with depression related to diet
-Subjects were randomly assigned to groups and changes in diet were made for three weeks

-Experimental group: eliminated added sugar and caffeine

-Control- eliminated red meat and artificial sweeteners

-Results:
-The participants who removed sugar and caffeine from their diet had significantly fewer depression symptoms than the control

-Benefits were maintained after 3 months

-Dietary changes were successful for most but not all participants
Rosenthal (1987)
-Aim: investigate SAD

-Finding:
-Reduced sunlight in autumn and winter are believed to disrupt circadian rhythm in some people

-Leads to form of depression brought on by increased melatonin production

-Increased melatonin production= lower serotonin production

-Conclusions: higher levels of melatonin contribute to SAD and a craving for carbs (serotonin is created in higher amounts with a more well rounded diet since most Serotonin production is in the gut)
Shacter Singer (1962)
-Schacter- said that the strength of physiological arousal will determine the strength of the emotion experienced

-Aim: support the theory mentioned above

-Methods:
-Gave 3 groups (m)adrenaline injections. 1 group (m) a placebo

-Put participants into situations designed to create an emotional response (either anger or happiness)

-Some participants were mislead or given no info

-Researchers predicted that they would blame their physical state on the situation and report higher levels of emotion

-Other participants were told the effects of the injection

-Participants would not blame the situation because they already knew they would feel this way

-Results:
-Doesnt know why phy. arroused-use situation to label emo.

-Results for conditions:
-Euphoria (listed happiest to least affected) :
1.Misinformed participants
2.Ignorant
3.Informed

-Anger (listed most to least affected):
1.Ignorant
2.Placebo
3.Informed
Gallese, Rizzolatti et al
-Aim: studying mirror neurons

Method:
-Wires were implanted on the motor cortex of monkeys

Results:
-When the monkey moved its hand to its mouth to eat, the device would buzz

-The device actually began to buzz when the monkeys watched humans and other monkeys put peanuts to their mouths

Conclusions:
-just watching someone else reach for a peanut, the monkey's brain acted as though it was carrying out the action
Clive Wearing
Background:
-CW was a musician who got brain swelling from herpes encephalitis

-This brain swelling left him with serious damage to the hippocampus which caused memory impairment

-Suffered from atero and retrograde amnesia

Results:
-He couldnt transfer STM to LTM

-His memory lasted 7-30 seconds

-Had the ability to talk, read, write conduct and sight-read music

-Much of his episodic memory and some of his semantic memory were lost

-MRI scans of wearing;s brain showed damage to hippocampus and some of the frontal regions

Conclusions:
-highlights interactions between cognition and physiology
Minnesota Twin Study (1990)
Aim:
-To determine how much of intelligence is attributed to genetics and environment

Method:
-Longitudinal study since 1979

-Gave twins approx. 50 hrs of psychological and physiological testing

Participants:
-Identical twins reared apart (MZA)

-Identical twins reared together (MZT)

-Control: fraternal twins and siblings

-Uses over 100 sets of MZT and fraternal twins reared together from around the world who were reared together and apart

Results:
-Similarity rates for intelligence between MZTs raised apart was approx 76% compared to 86% for MZts reared together

-Fraternal twins= 55% similarity

-Siblings= 47% similarity

-Determined a heritability of 70% of intelligence attributed to genetics and 30% contributed to other factors

Issues:
-There was no control over how often the twins met before the study

-Cannot assume twins raised together experienced the same environment
Scarr and Weinberg (1977) and Horn et al (1979)
-Wealthy white and high IQ parents raised their own kids but also adopted kids

-Any difference between correlations of parents- children's IQ and parent-adopted children's IQ should be genetic

Results:
-No significant difference found

Assumptions:
-Environment was the same for both types of kids
Wahlstein- 1997
- found that transferring children born in low SES families to High SES improved childhood IQ scores 12-16 points

-shows that an enriched environment may raise the IQ of children
Warneken and Tomasello (2006)
Define Altruism:
- helping at a cost to yourself and/or no direct benefit to yourself

Aim:
-To show that humans as young as 18 months will readily help

Participants:
-24 participants (18 month olds)

-12 participants= control and 12 participants= experimental

Method:
-Participants were put into 10 different situations

Experimental group:
-Experimenter made it clear to the chimp and the human that they needed something

Control Group:
-Experimenter would not indicate that they needed help

-Dependent variable was whether the child or human helped the experimenter

Results:
-Human infants help most of the time

-Chimps help when they understand the goal of the experimenter

Conclusions:
-Helping behavior may be innate and determined by genes

-Makes sense because strong social bonds means a group may be more likely to survive

-Altruism may have evolved from a common ancestor between humans and chimps

Drawbacks:
-they only used captive chimps which may have only helped experimenter because the experimenter was the one who gave them food

-There is a tendency for researchers to anthropomorphize animal behavior
Fessler (2006)
Background:
-In the first trimester of pregnancy, hormones lower woman's immune system so that it doesn't fight new foreign genetic material in the uterus

-He argues that the emotion of disgust allowed our ancestors to survive long enough to produce offspring

Aim:
-Fessler hypothesized that disgust helps us compensate for the suppressed immune system

Method:
-Asked 496 healthy pregnant women between the ages of 18-50 to rank 32 potentially disgusting scenarios. The women were in their 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters

Results:
-Women in their first trimester scored higher in disgust sensitivity than women in their second and their trimesters

-When Fessler controlled the study for morning sickness, the response only applied to scenarios involving food

Conclusions:
-Fessler explained this in terms of the extent of dangerous diseases, which are food-borne

-This study supports the role of disgust in aiding reproduction, and thus, as an evolutionary behavior.
Money (1974)
Aim:
-Prove that nurture determined gender identity, not nature

-Longitudinal study on David Reimer

Background:
-David was born a boy, but lost his penis in a circumcision accident

-Money suggested David's parents give him a sex change

Ethical issues:
-He did not reveal his true motive: to prove his theory on gender identity

-They did not tell david that he had had a sex change (uninformed consent)

-Neither Brenda (David after the sex change) or his parents were debriefed about the case study the twins were involved in

-Money published this case in a study without the parents knowledge

-He also deceived the parents because he did not tell them about research that proved his theory was wrong

Results:
-David grew up and he displayed masculine behavior.

-David got a sex change to become a man, but eventually took his own life

Conclusions:
-Proves that psychosexual development is determined genetically
Caspi et al. (2003)
Aim:
-To investigate the relationship between 5 HTT gene (a serotonin- transporter gene) and depression

Method:
-847 adults age 26 years

-Researchers assessed the participants tendency for depression via self-reports

-Past- year depression was assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule

Results:
-The participants with 2 short alleles (mutation) in the 5 HTT gene reported more depression symptoms in response to stressful life events than either of the other two groups (one short/ one long and two long).

-Participants with 2 long alleles reported fewer depression symptoms

-Childhood maltreatment was predictive of depression in adulthood only in adults with either one or two short alleles

Ethical Considerations:
-Participants could be stigmatized due to their genetic predisposition for major depression

-Other people may not want to be around individuals with a genetic predisposition for a disorder or disease

-Participants could fear onset depression

-Self- fulfilling prophecy show tendency towards expressing the symptoms with depression
Principles that define the CLOA
1. humans are info processors and mental processes guide behaviors

2.mental processes can and should be studied scientifically

3. Cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural norms
Model of Working Memory (Baddeley)
Contains:
-Central executive
~CEO of working memory
~Most important job is attention control:
1.Automatic level: based on Habits

2.Supervisory Level: Deals with new info and emergencies

-Episodic Buffer
~Acts as a temporary and passive display store until the info is needed

-Phonological Loop
~Inner voice which holds info in verbal form

-Visuospatial Sketchpad
~Inner eye
~Deals with visual and spatial info

Evaluation:
-Provides a much more satisfactory explanation of storage and processing than the STM component of the Multistore model

-Assumes an active rather than passive process which makes more sense
Levels of Processing Model (Craik and Lockhart) (1972)
-Emphasized the processing not the stages
-Did not deny the existence of stages

Importance:
-Memory is a by-product of perception
-Memory is a direct consequence of the way info is perceived and encoded

-Deeper level→ the longer lasting the memory
Schema theory
-Schema:A mental representation of knowledge

-Mental Representations: organized into categories and are stored in our memories
1.Objects
2.Ideas
3.People

-We actively process info in our world

-If info is missing, our brain will fill in the blanks

-This results in distortions

-Top-down perceptual process that guides selective search for data

-Schema-driven processing interacts with bottom-up data-driven processes

Evaluation:
-Lots of research supports

-Useful in understanding how people categorize info, interpret stories and make inferences

Limitations:
-Not exactly sure how schemas are acquired
-Not sure exactly how they actually influence cognitive processes
Daley and Gross (1983)
Hypothesis:
-people use info/ details to form impressions

Experiment Procedure:
-Showed a girl in poor or wealthy neighborhood

-Showed that girl taking an intelligence test

Results:
-The child in the poor neighborhood was estimated to perform below grade level and the child in the rich neighborhood was rated as above grade level

Implications:
-Humans use even the smallest amount of info to form an overall impression

-Likely that participants used their own schemas of what it meant to be rich or poor
Brewer and Treyens (1981) also referred to as the "Professor's Office" study
Aim:
-Investigate whether people's memory for objects in a room (office) is influenced by existing schemas about offices

Method:
-Experiment

Procedure:
-Participants waited in an office with both traditional and nontraditional office items

Results:
-Most recalled the items that fit in their schemas and also very unusual items

-Some reported items that were expected in an office, but not present

Evaluation:
-Has ecological validity

-Difficult to generalize the results because all participants were in college
Evaluation of Schemas Theory
Strengths:
-Useful in explaining many cognitive processes
~Perception, memory, reasoning

-Helps understand reconstructive memory
~Eyewitness testimony
~Gender identity
~Cultural differences

Weaknesses:
-Very vague

-Doesn't explain how they are acquired

-Focusses too much on inaccuracies of memory
Why study scientifically at CLOA
-Allows for the creation of testable theories about unobservable cognitive structures

-Studying mental processes allows us to study psychological phenomenon

-Using more than one research method (experiments, case studies, observational studies, interviews, questionnaires, correlational studies, observational study) in an investigation increases credibility
two main research methods in CLOA
Experiments and Case studies
Background on Experiments
Purpose:
-Determine a cause and effect relationship between two things

3 types of settings:
1.Laboratory experiment
Strength:
-Easy to replicate and control
Weakness:
-Lacks ecological validity

2.Field experiment
strength :
-High ecological validity
Weakness:
-Mot easy to replicate and it is difficult to make sure all the variables are controlled

3. Natural Experiment
Strengths:
-Used when the independent variable cannot be created in a lab
Weakness:
-Low reliability, cannot be replicated, hard to control
Loftus and Palmer
-Concerned about how info an eyewitness hears after an event can effect their eyewitness testimony

-Wanted to show that cue words in leading questions could distort eyewitness testimony accounts

Aim:
-Test their hypothesis that language used in eyewitness testimony can alter memory

Procedure:
-Lab experiment
-45 participants

-Participants shown slides of a car accident involving a number of cars
Asked to describe what happened (acting like they are eyewitnesses)
Partici.

-Were asked specific questions about how fast the cars were going
"About how fast were the cars going when they (hit/collided/smashed/contacted/bumped) each other?"

-A week later they were asked if they saw broken glass

Results:
-Estimated speed was affected by the verb used (verb implied info about speed)

-Speeds ranked from highest to lowest:
Smashed, collided, bumped, hit and contacted

-There was not any broken glass in any of the slides but, participants who heard "smashed" were more likely to respond that they had seen glass

-Questions appeared to modify memory

Conclusions:
-Memory is easily distorted

-Info collected after the event can merge with original info causing inaccurate recall

Weaknesses:
-Lacks ecological validity because the slides lacked the emotional impact of being an actual eyewitness

Why an experiment?
-Allowed for a cause and effect relationship to be established

Cause: wording of questions

Effect: their schema can be influenced

-This relationship could not be found using other research methods
Craik and Tulving (1975)
Aim:
-Showing the levels of processing model of memory as an alternative to the multi-store model of memory

-multi -store model of memory
comprised of: sensory, short-term and long-term memory.

-Each type of memory acts independently mostly except for retrieval

-Levels of processing model of memory

-Shows the depth of the storage of the memory corresponding to the depth of the analysis of the stored info

-Lacks the structure of the multi- store model

Method:
-Participants were given a list of 60 words
-They were asked to answer 1 of 3 types of questions about each word

Types:
Shallow processing
Structural (visual)
Phonemic (auditory)
Deeper processing
Semantic processing (thinking of meaning and connections)

-Participants were later given a list of 180 words and asked to pick out the original 60

Results:
-Participants recalled more words that were processed at the semantic level than at the shallower levels

How is this an experiment?
-IV: level of processing required (shallow or deep)

-DV: recall of original 60 words out of the 180 word list and level of processing associated with each recalled word (depended on question answered about that word)

Type of experiment:
-Laboratory experiment with strict control of variables

Why was an experiment used?
-Control of variables allowed for cause and effect relationship

-Another method would not have provided sufficient evidence for this relationship
Case studies (background knowledge)
-In-depth study of an individual or small group

-Able to collect info that may not be identifiable using other methods

-Useful for qualitative data but can collect some quantitative data as well

-Combines multiple research methods (interviews and observation), making conclusions drawn more valid

Why case studies are used:
-To obtain enriched qualitative data

-Study unusual psychological phenomena

-Study variables that cannot be produced in lab due to financial or ethical limitations (naturally occurring biological events like brain damage)

Why case studies ARENT used:
-Researchers may create personal relationships with the patient, possibly altering data

-Researcher interpretation fault

-Costs lots of time, effort and money

-Cannot be replicated

-Cannot be applied to a population

-Loss of confidentiality
Brain Imaging (background)
Allows researchers to look at brain activity during cognitive processes, however brain areas are active for several reasons so it's hard to make connections sometimes
Sharot (2006)
-9/11 flashbulb memory

Aim:
-Investigate the existence of flashbulb memories
~Memories that have high emotional value and seem to be a snapshot of the situation

Participants:
-24 eyewitnesses of the 9/11 incident were found from different locations of Manhattan

-Subjects were placed in an fMRI machine

-fMRI= measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow

-Subjects were asked to recall the events of 9/11

-Subjects were also asked to recall memories such as a vacation (as a control)

Results:
-People closer to where the event happened had a more in-depth recall of the event

-When the vacation and 9/11 incident were compared, the 9/11 had a higher level of detail

-The part of the brain connected with LTM retrieval (Parahippocampal Gyrus) was pretty inactive when recalling memories from 9/11 compared to the vacation

-Amygdala was more active during 9/11 recall

Conclusions:
-Different part of the brain was used for FBM and LTM

-Supports FBM as a different type of memory than LTM

Individualistic culture- encouraged to express emotion, memory encoded at a deeper level

Strengths:
-Ecologically valid

Weaknesses:
-Some say that it is still a laboratory setting, so this blatant observing may cause Demand Characteristics

-Pressure under lab conditions may cause altered results

-Possible confirmation bias

-No cause-and-effect relationship can be established

-The results had to be heavily interpreted by the researcher

-The amygdala showing a response could be due to the fact that the emotion associated with recalling 9/11 was a depressed one

Ethical Consideration:
-Privacy of the subjects may have been invaded because the fMRI indicates a good general representation of that specific person's thought processes
Strengths and Weaknesses of Technology
Strengths
-Sometimes the only way that data can be retrieved ethically
-High ecological validity
-Easily measured quantitative data

Weaknesses
-Interpretation of qualitative data can be ambiguous
-Pressure in a lab may cause altered results
-Expensive
-Different types of scans have different restrictions
Bartlett (1932) )(war of the ghosts)
-Coined the term "schema"

Cultural Schema of memory:
-Sociocultural factors influence schemas
-Schemas influence memory
-Schemas can distort memory due to the reconstruction process

Hypothesis:
-Culture influences schema which impacts memory

Procedure:
-British participants were asked to read and reproduce an unfamiliar Native American Story

Results:
-Participants reproduced story to fit their own cultural schemas

-Changed names and omitted unfamiliar info

-Subjects increasingly omitted the word "ghosts" from recall protocols

-Participants tended to alter their memories in order to make the story more coherent

-Downplaying things they didn't understand like the supernatural elements

Conclusion:
-Bartlett concluded that remembering is an active process

-Memories are not copies but reconstructions

Evaluation:
-Ecological validity has been questioned
-Bartlett rejected the artificiality of nonsense syllables

Implications:
-We cannot process everything

-Our previous knowledge/ experiences (schema) influence what info is processed
Wynn and Logie (1988
-A similar study to Bartlett

-Participants were College students

-Participants were told "real-life" events experienced during their first week in college at various intervals of time ranging from 2 weeks the six months

Results:
-Initial accuracy of recall was sustained throughout the time period

-Suggesting that schema-induced memory distortions may be less common in naturalistic conditions than in a lab
Cole and Scribner (1974)
Hypothesis:
-Memory strategies depend on culture

Experiment Procedure
-Independent variable:
Culture of Rural Liberia compared to US children

-Compared schooled and non schooled children

-Dependent variable:
Memorization of a list of words

Results:
-Schooled children performed better than non-schooled

-Overall, US children did better than the Liberian children

Conclusion:
-Western culture emphasizes strategies for memorization

-Memory is universal, but how memory is used depends on cultural practices such as formal schooling

Follow-up experiment:
-Telling a story that related to the children's culture, the Liberian children (both schooled and non-schooled) were able to recall more items from the story

-This method was relevant to the lives of the children and how they traditionally learned
Allport and Postman (1947)
Basic Rundown:
-A test subject was shown an illustration and given time to look over it

-They were asked to describe the scene from memory to a second test subject and so on

-Each reproduction was recorded

-This test was repeated with different pictures in different settings and contexts

How the researchers described what happened:
-Leveling- loss of detail during transmission process

-Sharpening- selection of certain detail of what to transmit

-Assimilation- distortion in the transmission of info as a result of subconscious motivations (schema)

-Example of assimilation in the test:
In an picture showing a battle-scene, the test subjects would falsely report that the ambulance in the background was carrying medical supplies even though the box in the truck was clearly labeled TNT

Black and White test:

-Participants were shown a picture of an argument between a well dressed black man and a raggedy looking white man holding a razor

-Participants were asked to describe the picture to another white participant and so on

-White participants were more likely to tell a story about the black man being the aggressor

-Black participants were more likely to recount the picture correctly

Results:
-Rumors grow shorter, more concise and more easily grasped and told

-Based on a test of message diffusion between persons, which found that about 70% of details were lost in the first 5 to 6 mouth-to-mouth transmissions


Conclusions:
-This study is an example of how through social environment, what we expect can distort what we actually hear and process into our memory

-White people were heavily influenced by the history of racism
Black men were portrayed as aggressive and dangerous
Genie Curtiss (1981)
Background:
-A girl who had been deprived of normal exposure to language early in life

-Had no apparent language skills when she was discovered at age 13

Aim:
-To investigate the sensitive period hypothesis there a sensitive learning period (before puberty) during which language must be acquired to develop normally

Method:
-They communicated with her, taught her sign language, and provided a caring environment

Ethical issues:
-Participant protection
She was protected from harm during the study, but when the study was over, Genie was left to live in an adult foster home

She may have experienced mental distress from the dramatic change in environment and caregivers and the leaving of the researchers

-Consent:
Genie could not be fully informed or give consent to the study due to the language barrier and her mental state

She was not in a healthy state of mind to understand the nature and aims of the study

It may have been impossible to gain informed consent

-Withdrawal:
She was not able to express any desires to withdrawal from the study due to the language barrier

-Confidentiality:
Her identity was kept anonymous

Although her real name was not revealed, her case was exposed to the world of psychology

Her picture was shared

-Debriefing:
She was never debriefed

Since she was never aware that she was being studied, she would not have a desire to be debriefed

-Inappropriate behavior of the researchers:
They became very personally attached to her

Leads to the questioning of objectivity and their aims for studying genie
Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
Aim:
-To investigate if recall of words is affected by the order in which they are presented

Participants:
240 army enlisted participants

Method:
-Participants were asked to read a series of twenty words and then asked to recall them in any order

-In a variation, some subjects were distracted for thirty seconds before recalling the words

-Experiment 1:
Words were presented at two different rates

Condition 1:
Words presented at a three second rate

Condition 2:
Words presented at a two second rate

-Participants that received the 3 seconds rate were more likely to remember the first words of the list than the participants who were only given 2 seconds

-The reason for this could be because they were given a longer amount of time to rehearse, so the words went into long term memory
Experiment 2:

-Participants were presented with words and then asked to count aloud right after all the words were presented
-Participants that were asked to count out loud for 30 seconds remembered less of the last words on the list than the participants who only had to count for 10 seconds

Results:
-Recall follows the pattern of serial position curve (remembering the first and last things you hear but not the middle)

-The first words were remembered well because there was more time to rehearse them and encode them into long term memory

-In the variation (experiment 2) the first words were still remembered more than others but the last words were no longer remembered due to decay (this is because of the counting)

Conclusion:
-This study supports many a lot of the multi-store model of memory

-Says that rehearsal is important to converting STM to LTM

-Supports the idea that STM has a limited duration (the memory of the last words was forgotten during the 30 seconds of counting)

-Suggests that the words listed early were put into long term memory because the person had time to repeat the word in their minds (primacy effect)

-Suggests that words at the end of the list were put into short term memory (recency effect) which can typically hold around 7 items

-Words in the middle of the list had been in STM too long but not long enough to go into long term memory

Weaknesses:
-Low ecological validity

-No control for participants understanding the words

-Making the connection between understanding the words or not may have impacted the results of some participants

-Only tested in one cultural group
Evaluation of MSM
Strengths:
-Gives evidence that there is a difference between STM and LTM

-Accounts for primacy and recency effects

Weaknesses:
-Oversimplified, especially when it says that STM and LTM operate in a very distinct and uniform fashion all the time

-Memory is more complicated than was previously thought. The working model of memory shows that short term memory is more likely comprised of different components

There are different types of LTM
1.Episodic
2.Procedural
3.Semantic

Suggests that rehearsal is not essential to transferring to LTM
Karl Lashley (1929)
-Memory trace (engram): brain changes that were to occur in forming new LTM

-Looked for a specific place for memory trace that a rat forms when running a maze. He thought that it may be located in the cerebral cortex

-After a rat learned to go through a maze, he would remove portions of the cortex.

-He concluded that memories are not localized but are stored throughout the brain
Richard Thomson (1989)
-Looked at memory trace and found that some memories seem to be localized

-Classically conditioned rabbits to blink by pairing a tone with a puff of air

-After a portion of the cerebellum was removed, the learned response went away but the rabbit would still blink at the puff of air

-Long term memory trace of blinking was stored in the cerebellum
Lashley and Thompson conclusion
-Both indicate that memory is both partially localized and distributed

-Simple memories are localized

-Complex memories are distributed

-Brain imaging suggests that this is true because multiple regions of the brain will activate while performing a complex task
Shacter (1964) (two-factory theory)
-For an emotion to be experienced, a physiological state of arousal is necessary AND situational factors will then determine how we interpret this arousal.

-Basically, an event causes physiological arousal first

-You have to identify a reason for this arousal before you are able to experience and label the emotion.

-The strength of the physiological arousal will determine the strength of the emotion experienced while the situation will determine the type of emotion

-The two factors are independent but are both necessary
Principles that define the SCLOA
1. Humans are social animals and thus we have a need to "belong"

2. Culture influences behavior

3.Humans have a social-self

4.People's views of the world are resistant to change and developed by the community and culture
Alan Feingold (1992)
Found few personality differences between beautiful people and their plainer counterparts. Physical attractiveness is not correlated with intelligence, mental health or even self-esteem. Attractive people do tend to be less lonely, and less anxious in social situations.
Lee et al (1977)
Fundamental Attribution error:
-The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal disposition rather than situations

-People tend to blame or credit the person more than the situation

Aim:
-to see if student participants would make FAE even when they knew all the actors were playing roles

Participants:
-Game show host
-Game show contestant
-Audience member

-Game show hosts create 10 difficult questions and ask them to the contestants

-Audience rates host and contestant on intelligence (DV)

-Audience rates game show host as more intelligent than contestants

Conclusion:
-They failed to attribute the host's behavior to situational factors of the role they had been randomly assigned

-Instead attribution his performance to dispositional factors (intelligence)

-They had strong evidence to supp

Limitations:
-Participants were all university students

-Sample is not representative small sample, part of specific school
Explanation for FAE
-We usually do not have enough info about circumstances, so we use dispositional attributions

-Other psychologists argue that it is because info required to make situational attributions is generally less obvious than the info required to make dispositional attributions

-Miller et al (1978) says that FAE provides us with a sense of control over the world

-If we think that bad things happen to people because of dispositional rather than situational factors then we can believe we have the power to stop bad things from happening
Lau and Russell (1980)
-Analyzed sports pages in newspapers

-American football coaches and players attribute winning to dispositional (internal) factors like skill strength and practice

-They also attribute losses to situational (external) factors like injuries and weather conditions
Kashima and Triandis (1986)
-Cultural differences in self-serving bias

-American and Japanese students look at scenes from random (unfamiliar) countries

-Test their memory on the scenes afterwards and ask them to explain their success/ failure

-Americans attribute success to their ability (dispositional factor)

-Japanese attribute failure to their lack of ability (dispositional factor)

-Known as a modesty bias
Gifford (1976)
-Relationship between 2 things that does not exist

-Illusory correlation

-Lucky pens help people do well on a test (example
Steele and Aronson (1995)
-African Americans and White americans

Significance of the test (IV)
Told either:
1. Performance is related to verbal ability
2. Test to see how people solve problems

Results:
-African Americans perform worse than White Americans when they are told the test is related to verbal ability

-African Americans perform roughly the same as White americans when they are told the test is to see how people solve problems

Similar findings for women and math ability
Yarrow et. al
Children more readily learn helpful behavior from people they have a friendly relationship with
Bobo Doll Study (Bandura et al) (1961)
Aims:
-Do children imitate aggressive model?

-Are children more likely to imitate same sex models?

-Children observe an adult (same or diff sex) (IV)
~Behaving aggressively with bobo doll
~Playing with toys

Results:
-Children imitate adult behavior

-Children imitate same-sex models

-Boys more likely to be physically aggressive

-Girls more likely to be verbally aggressive

Problems:
-No ecological validity

-Aggressive behavior by model wasn't standardized

-Demand characteristics
Huesmann and Eron (1986)
-Longitudinal study

-Monitored children's behavior for 15 years

-Positive correlation between hours of violent tv they saw when they were kids and their aggression as teenagers

-8 year olds who watched a lot of violet tV were more likely to be arrested as teenagers
Charlton et al. (2000)
-Natural experiment in St Helena

-Community without TV

-Cameras set up in playground to observe children's behavior

Variables:
-TV introduced (IV)
-Children's behavior (DV)

-Compared before and after TV was introduced (through inductive content analysis)

Results:
-Little difference in children's behavior
-Measured by
~Observations
~Interviews with teachers and parents
Foot-in-the-door Phenomenon
-People will try to bring their attitude in line with their commitment to reduce cognitive dissonance

-People who have first agreed to a small request it will most likely comply later with a larger request

-Someone asks you to wear a lapel pin to raise awareness for their fundraiser (you have now committed publicly). Later they will ask you for a donation. You feel psychologically pressured
Door in the Face technique
Starting with an unreasonably excessive request and once that's denied asking for what you really want in the expectation that it will be granted
That's not all technique
-You are made an offer, but before you can respond they throw in something extra

-You feel committed because you think that the person has just done you a favor by making a concessions to something you did ask for. This creates a sense of obligation
Role Playing (Zimbardo's Prison study)
-Researchers set up a mock prison in the basement of Stanford University's psych dept

Participants:
-24 undergrad students

Played role of either :
prisoners
Guards

-Selected from larger group of 70 volunteers because they had no criminal background, lacked psychological issues and had no major medical conditions

-Agreed to participate for a one to two week period for $15 a day

Setting and procedures:
-Simulated prison (6x9 prison cells)

-Each cell has 3 prisoners and 3 cots

-One small room was for solitary confinement

-Another small room was used as the prison yard

-Prisoners had to stay in the "prison" for 24hrs a day during the study

-Guards only had to stay for 8 hours at a time and then allowed to return to their homes

-Observed behavior via hidden cameras and microphones

Results:
-It was supposed to last 14 days, but only lasted 6

-Guards became abusive and the prisoners began to show signs of extreme stress and anxiety

-Interactions between guards and prisoners was almost always hostile and dehumanizing even though they were not told how to interact

-The prisoners became passive and depressed while guards became abusive and aggressive

-Five prisoners began to have severe negative emotions (crying and acute anxiety) had to be released and that is when the study ended

-Zimbardo himself began to lose sight of reality. He overlooked the violence towards the inmates

-Only a few people were able to resist the situational temptations

Meaning of the results:
-Demonstrates the powerful role that situations can play in human behavior

-Because the guards were placed in a position of power, they began to behave in ways they would not normally act in their everyday lives or other situations

-Because the prisoners were placed in a situation where they didn't have real control, they became passive and depressed
Solomon Asch (1907-1996)
Conformity:
-Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard

Researcher:
-Researched the circumstances under which people conform

Question:
-Would people conform even if the group was clearly wrong?

Method:
-There were real participants and people hired to act like participants

-The researcher asked the entire group to examine a line segment and pick the line that matches that line from a group of 3 line segments of different lengths

-Each participant or "participant" is asked individually to pick out the matching line segment

-Sometimes, everyone picks the correct line. But, sometimes, the other participants say that the wrong line

Results:
-Nearly 75% of the participants in the conformity experiments went along with the rest of the group at least one time.

-Participants conformed to the incorrect group approx. ⅓ of the time

-To make sure that the participants could correctly gauge the length of the lines, they had to write down the correct answer

-Participants wrote down the right answer 99% of the time

-The level of conformity in a group of 3 or more was significantly greater than in a group with 1 or two other people

-Having one of the "participants" give the correct answer while the other "participants" gave the wrong answer dramatically lowered the level of conformity

-Just 5-10% of the participants conformed to the rest of the group
Factors increasing conformity
-The person feels incompetent or insecure

-The group has 3 or more people

-The rest of the group is unanimous

-The person is impressed by the status of the group

-No prior commitments were made

-The group is observing the person respond

-One's culture encourages conformity
Definition of Social Learning theory
States that social behavior is learned primarily by observing and imitation the actions of others. The social behavior is also influenced by being rewarded and/or punished for these actions
Milgram (obedience to authority )
-Started his experiments right after the trial of a nazi who used the defense that he was just following orders to order the death of millions of jews

Method:

Participants:
-40 men recruited using newspaper ads

-Each participant was paid $4.50

-Developed an intimidating shock generator (shock levels starting at 30 volts and increasing in increments of 15 all the way up to 450 volts)

-The switches were labeled with terms including "slight shock" "moderate shock" and "danger: severe shock" the final two switches were simply labeled "XXX"

-Each participant played the role of a "teacher" who would deliver a shock to the "student" every time an incorrect answer was given

-While the participants believed he was delivering a real shock to the students, the student was actually a confederate in the experiment pretending to get shocked

-The participant would hear the student plead to be released or even complain about a heart condition

-At 300 volt level, the learner would bang on the wall and demand to be released

-After 300 volts, the learner would refused to answer any more questions.

-The researcher told the participant to treat silence as an incorrect answer and deliver a shock

-Most participants asked the experimenter whether they should continue and the experimenter would issue a series of commands such as:
Please continue
The experiment requires that you continue
It is absolutely essential that you continue
You have no other choice, you must go on

Results:
-The level of shock that the participant was willing to deliver was used to measure obedience

-It was predicted that no more than 3 out of 100 participants would deliver the maximum shock

-In the actual experiment, 65% of participants delivered maximum shocks

Out of 40 participants:
-26 delivered the max shock
-14 stopped just before the max shock

-Many of the subjects became extremely agitated, distraught and angry at the experimenter but continued to follow orders

-Because of concerns about the amount of anxiety the participants experienced, all subjects were debriefed to explain the procedures and use of deception.

-Critics argue that many of the participants were still confused about the exact nature of the experiments

-Participants were surveyed later and only 1% regretted their involvement

-Conclusions and reasoning:
Physical presence of an authority figure dramatically increased compliance

-The fact that the study was sponsored by a trusted and authoritative academic institute (Yale) led many participants to believe that the experiment must be safe

-The selection of teacher and learner seemed random

-Participants assumed that the experimenter was a competent expert

-The shocks were said to be painful but not dangerous
Bystander Effect
Definition of bystander effect:
The phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely people are to help a person in distress

-When an emergency occurs, observers are more likely to take action if there are few or no other witnesses

-Latane and Darley found that the amount of time it takes the participants to take action and seek help varies depending on how many other observers are in the room

-Pluralistic ignorance appears

-A situation in which a majority of group members privately reject a norm, but incorrectly assume that most others accept it, and therefore go along with it
Lady in distress
-Subjects either waited alone, with a friend, with a passive confederate or with a stranger

-The room was separated from another room by a curtain (which the passed on their way to their waiting room). The experimenter who lead them there returned to the other room and turned on a tape recorder that simulated a fall and subsequent moaning about a hurt leg (130 seconds total).

-They measured the % who took action and how long it took them to act

Results:
61% pulled back the curtain to check on the experimenter
14% entered via another door
24% simply called out
0% went to report and accident
70% of alone subjects responded
Only 7% with passive confederates reacted
Only 40% of stranger pairs offered to help
70% of friend pairs helped

-Interveners claimed that they acted because the fall seemed serious and it was "the right thing to do"

-Non-interveners said they were unsure of what happened but decided it wasnt serious. They did not want to embarrass the researcher. They also felt that they weren't highly influenced by others in the room

-The risk of inappropriate behavior is less with friends, and friends are less likely develop "pluralistic ignorance"
Definition of Social Facilitation
Improved performance of tasks in the presence of others
Definition of Social Loafing
Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Definition of Deindividuation
When you combine increased arousal due to the presence of others with the diffusion of responsibility that characterizes social loafing and the bystander effect
Definition of Group Polarization
-Enhancement of a group's already existing attitudes through discussion within the group

-Discussion among like-minded people tends to strengthen preexisting attitudes
Definition of Groupthink
Mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in decision- making group overrides a realistic appraisal of the alternatives
Definition of Self-fulfilling Prophecies
We believe something to be true about others or ourselves and we act in ways that cause this belief to come true
Heider
Definition of attribution:
-How people interpret and explain causal relationships in the social world and society

Attribution theory:
-Proposed by Heider (1958)

-Attempts to provide an understanding and explanation for how people attribute causes to their own and other people's behavior

-We do this by observing others' behavior and considering their intentions and responsibilities in that situation

2 types of attribution:
1.Dispositional cause (internal like personality, beliefs and mood)

2.Situational causes (external factors like roles, luck and laws)
Definition of culture
-Dynamic system of rules, implicit or explicit, established by a social group

Surface culture (Visible, Explicit)
Music clothing and food

Deep culture (Invisible, Implicit)
emotions , Beliefs, Expressions
Definition of cultural norms
-Behavior typical to the specific cultural group

-Observational (social) learning (maybe use Bandura here to insert a study)

-Rules within the deep culture
-Expectations
"Gatekeepers"
Ex: the media
=Keep the cultural norms in place
Etic
-Cross-cultural approach

-Tackles culture with one general approach

World Health Organization Study on depression:

Aim:
-A study of diagnosis and classification of depression in Switzerland, Canada, Japan and Iran

Participants:
-576 patients studied

-The standard diagnosis system for each of the four countries was used

Findings:
-40% of patients displayed symptoms that were not on the classification system

Conclusions:
-Diagnosis and classification need an Emic (Culture specific) approach because socially acceptable norms are different in different cultures
define emic
-Culture specific approach

-Tackles culture specifically and individually

Kashima and Triandis (1986):
-Cultural differences in self-serving bias

-American and japanese students look at scenes from random (unfamiliar) countries

-Test their memory on the scenes afterwards and ask them to explain their success/ failure

-Americans attribute success to their ability (dispositional factor)

-Japanese attribute failure to their lack of ability (dispositional factor)
Known as a modesty bias