Terms in this set (81)

-9/11 flashbulb memory

Aim:
-Investigate the existence of flashbulb memories
~Memories that have high emotional value and seem to be a snapshot of the situation

Participants:
-24 eyewitnesses of the 9/11 incident were found from different locations of Manhattan

-Subjects were placed in an fMRI machine

-fMRI= measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow

-Subjects were asked to recall the events of 9/11

-Subjects were also asked to recall memories such as a vacation (as a control)

Results:
-People closer to where the event happened had a more in-depth recall of the event

-When the vacation and 9/11 incident were compared, the 9/11 had a higher level of detail

-The part of the brain connected with LTM retrieval (Parahippocampal Gyrus) was pretty inactive when recalling memories from 9/11 compared to the vacation

-Amygdala was more active during 9/11 recall

Conclusions:
-Different part of the brain was used for FBM and LTM

-Supports FBM as a different type of memory than LTM

Individualistic culture- encouraged to express emotion, memory encoded at a deeper level

Strengths:
-Ecologically valid

Weaknesses:
-Some say that it is still a laboratory setting, so this blatant observing may cause Demand Characteristics

-Pressure under lab conditions may cause altered results

-Possible confirmation bias

-No cause-and-effect relationship can be established

-The results had to be heavily interpreted by the researcher

-The amygdala showing a response could be due to the fact that the emotion associated with recalling 9/11 was a depressed one

Ethical Consideration:
-Privacy of the subjects may have been invaded because the fMRI indicates a good general representation of that specific person's thought processes
Basic Rundown:
-A test subject was shown an illustration and given time to look over it

-They were asked to describe the scene from memory to a second test subject and so on

-Each reproduction was recorded

-This test was repeated with different pictures in different settings and contexts

How the researchers described what happened:
-Leveling- loss of detail during transmission process

-Sharpening- selection of certain detail of what to transmit

-Assimilation- distortion in the transmission of info as a result of subconscious motivations (schema)

-Example of assimilation in the test:
In an picture showing a battle-scene, the test subjects would falsely report that the ambulance in the background was carrying medical supplies even though the box in the truck was clearly labeled TNT

Black and White test:

-Participants were shown a picture of an argument between a well dressed black man and a raggedy looking white man holding a razor

-Participants were asked to describe the picture to another white participant and so on

-White participants were more likely to tell a story about the black man being the aggressor

-Black participants were more likely to recount the picture correctly

Results:
-Rumors grow shorter, more concise and more easily grasped and told

-Based on a test of message diffusion between persons, which found that about 70% of details were lost in the first 5 to 6 mouth-to-mouth transmissions


Conclusions:
-This study is an example of how through social environment, what we expect can distort what we actually hear and process into our memory

-White people were heavily influenced by the history of racism
Black men were portrayed as aggressive and dangerous
Background:
-A girl who had been deprived of normal exposure to language early in life

-Had no apparent language skills when she was discovered at age 13

Aim:
-To investigate the sensitive period hypothesis there a sensitive learning period (before puberty) during which language must be acquired to develop normally

Method:
-They communicated with her, taught her sign language, and provided a caring environment

Ethical issues:
-Participant protection
She was protected from harm during the study, but when the study was over, Genie was left to live in an adult foster home

She may have experienced mental distress from the dramatic change in environment and caregivers and the leaving of the researchers

-Consent:
Genie could not be fully informed or give consent to the study due to the language barrier and her mental state

She was not in a healthy state of mind to understand the nature and aims of the study

It may have been impossible to gain informed consent

-Withdrawal:
She was not able to express any desires to withdrawal from the study due to the language barrier

-Confidentiality:
Her identity was kept anonymous

Although her real name was not revealed, her case was exposed to the world of psychology

Her picture was shared

-Debriefing:
She was never debriefed

Since she was never aware that she was being studied, she would not have a desire to be debriefed

-Inappropriate behavior of the researchers:
They became very personally attached to her

Leads to the questioning of objectivity and their aims for studying genie
Aim:
-To investigate if recall of words is affected by the order in which they are presented

Participants:
240 army enlisted participants

Method:
-Participants were asked to read a series of twenty words and then asked to recall them in any order

-In a variation, some subjects were distracted for thirty seconds before recalling the words

-Experiment 1:
Words were presented at two different rates

Condition 1:
Words presented at a three second rate

Condition 2:
Words presented at a two second rate

-Participants that received the 3 seconds rate were more likely to remember the first words of the list than the participants who were only given 2 seconds

-The reason for this could be because they were given a longer amount of time to rehearse, so the words went into long term memory
Experiment 2:

-Participants were presented with words and then asked to count aloud right after all the words were presented
-Participants that were asked to count out loud for 30 seconds remembered less of the last words on the list than the participants who only had to count for 10 seconds

Results:
-Recall follows the pattern of serial position curve (remembering the first and last things you hear but not the middle)

-The first words were remembered well because there was more time to rehearse them and encode them into long term memory

-In the variation (experiment 2) the first words were still remembered more than others but the last words were no longer remembered due to decay (this is because of the counting)

Conclusion:
-This study supports many a lot of the multi-store model of memory

-Says that rehearsal is important to converting STM to LTM

-Supports the idea that STM has a limited duration (the memory of the last words was forgotten during the 30 seconds of counting)

-Suggests that the words listed early were put into long term memory because the person had time to repeat the word in their minds (primacy effect)

-Suggests that words at the end of the list were put into short term memory (recency effect) which can typically hold around 7 items

-Words in the middle of the list had been in STM too long but not long enough to go into long term memory

Weaknesses:
-Low ecological validity

-No control for participants understanding the words

-Making the connection between understanding the words or not may have impacted the results of some participants

-Only tested in one cultural group
-Researchers set up a mock prison in the basement of Stanford University's psych dept

Participants:
-24 undergrad students

Played role of either :
prisoners
Guards

-Selected from larger group of 70 volunteers because they had no criminal background, lacked psychological issues and had no major medical conditions

-Agreed to participate for a one to two week period for $15 a day

Setting and procedures:
-Simulated prison (6x9 prison cells)

-Each cell has 3 prisoners and 3 cots

-One small room was for solitary confinement

-Another small room was used as the prison yard

-Prisoners had to stay in the "prison" for 24hrs a day during the study

-Guards only had to stay for 8 hours at a time and then allowed to return to their homes

-Observed behavior via hidden cameras and microphones

Results:
-It was supposed to last 14 days, but only lasted 6

-Guards became abusive and the prisoners began to show signs of extreme stress and anxiety

-Interactions between guards and prisoners was almost always hostile and dehumanizing even though they were not told how to interact

-The prisoners became passive and depressed while guards became abusive and aggressive

-Five prisoners began to have severe negative emotions (crying and acute anxiety) had to be released and that is when the study ended

-Zimbardo himself began to lose sight of reality. He overlooked the violence towards the inmates

-Only a few people were able to resist the situational temptations

Meaning of the results:
-Demonstrates the powerful role that situations can play in human behavior

-Because the guards were placed in a position of power, they began to behave in ways they would not normally act in their everyday lives or other situations

-Because the prisoners were placed in a situation where they didn't have real control, they became passive and depressed
-Started his experiments right after the trial of a nazi who used the defense that he was just following orders to order the death of millions of jews

Method:

Participants:
-40 men recruited using newspaper ads

-Each participant was paid $4.50

-Developed an intimidating shock generator (shock levels starting at 30 volts and increasing in increments of 15 all the way up to 450 volts)

-The switches were labeled with terms including "slight shock" "moderate shock" and "danger: severe shock" the final two switches were simply labeled "XXX"

-Each participant played the role of a "teacher" who would deliver a shock to the "student" every time an incorrect answer was given

-While the participants believed he was delivering a real shock to the students, the student was actually a confederate in the experiment pretending to get shocked

-The participant would hear the student plead to be released or even complain about a heart condition

-At 300 volt level, the learner would bang on the wall and demand to be released

-After 300 volts, the learner would refused to answer any more questions.

-The researcher told the participant to treat silence as an incorrect answer and deliver a shock

-Most participants asked the experimenter whether they should continue and the experimenter would issue a series of commands such as:
Please continue
The experiment requires that you continue
It is absolutely essential that you continue
You have no other choice, you must go on

Results:
-The level of shock that the participant was willing to deliver was used to measure obedience

-It was predicted that no more than 3 out of 100 participants would deliver the maximum shock

-In the actual experiment, 65% of participants delivered maximum shocks

Out of 40 participants:
-26 delivered the max shock
-14 stopped just before the max shock

-Many of the subjects became extremely agitated, distraught and angry at the experimenter but continued to follow orders

-Because of concerns about the amount of anxiety the participants experienced, all subjects were debriefed to explain the procedures and use of deception.

-Critics argue that many of the participants were still confused about the exact nature of the experiments

-Participants were surveyed later and only 1% regretted their involvement

-Conclusions and reasoning:
Physical presence of an authority figure dramatically increased compliance

-The fact that the study was sponsored by a trusted and authoritative academic institute (Yale) led many participants to believe that the experiment must be safe

-The selection of teacher and learner seemed random

-Participants assumed that the experimenter was a competent expert

-The shocks were said to be painful but not dangerous
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