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IF Calcium is low, what occurs?
If Calcium is high, what occurs?
thyroid or parathyroid reaction?
if low, parathyroid releases PTH which acts on osteoblasts causing osteoclasts to release calcium into blood
if high, thyroid releases calcitonin which tones down ca by acting on osteoclasts directly
cell death, calcification
liquid portion of anticoagulated blood in a blood sample is called
with EDTA or Heparin
if it is allowed to clot what is that called?
serum - no anticoagulant
If neutrophils high and there are band forms suspect what?
if lymphocytes are high and abnormally shaped, suspect what?
viral - cell mediated immune response
what is Nissl and what makes it
nissl bodies - rough ER
the cell that make it is plasma cell - makes antibodies
what is in intercalted disc
what is borezomib
if epidermis separates from the dermis at the level of basal lamina, what is affected
Increase in myofiber thickness and a gain in muscle size and strength mediated by what
where does ADH act
Describe Hirschprung's disease
○ Absence of ganglionic cells in both submucosal and myenteric plexuses
○ Aganglionic segment shows tonic contracture
§ Unable to relax
Ganglionic segment above dilates - MEGACOLON
Type IV collagen is found where
in basement membrane
mutations in type IV collagen genes
blood in urine - kidney failure early, filtration messed up
abnormal protein in blood
vision and hearing loss
mutations in type II collagen and Type IX collagen (FACIT)
eyes are at high risk for myopia, retinal detachment, cataracts
bones and joints are either overly stiff or overly flexible
flat face and small nose
Type IX collagen
protein backbone linked to a GAG and also functions to attract water for resisting forces
is the major component of cartilage and has over 100 GAG chains
how do the cancer drugs vinblastine and paclitaxel (taxol) work?
what are some side effects
They both inhibit the dynamics of spindle microtubules and the cell do not complete mitosis causing apoptosis
peripheral neuropathy and myelosuprression
adrenal gland dysfunction
caused by hypersecretion of corticosteroids
sig increased cortisol
or increased androgens
due to an adrenal tumor
pulses of increase catecholamines (norepi and epi)
episodes of hypertension, increased HR, headaches, and sweating
what has deregulated overgrowth in adrenal pheochromocytoma
carcinoma of parafollicular cells (C cells) in thyroid follicle that produce calcitonin
medullary thyroid cancer
abnormal growth of pituitary tissue - ACTH positive - corticotrophs -- increased cortisol -- increased fat deposition causing rounded face and trunk and occurrence of stretch marks -- muscle wasting and weakness
What is dysregulated in cushings disease
dysregulated abnormal proliferation of ACTH-positive acidophils
anterior pituitary tumor originating from somatotrophs (GH) can result in what in children and what in adults?
gigantism in children -- ocuring before closure in epiphyseal plates of long bones
acromegaly in adults - abnormal enlargements of hands, feet, and skull
what cells in parathyroid produce parathyroid hormone?
what is the effect of PTH
Principal chief cells
increase in blood calcium
where are oxyphil cells found
kidney failure causes what to happen to phos
retention -- leading to increased phos
What will levels of T3 and T4 and TSH look like in Goiter?
increaed TSH and decreased T3 and T4
What will T3 and T4 and TSH levels in hashimotos look like ?
decreased T3 and T4 and increased TSH levels
What will be levels of T3 and T4 and TSH in Graves disease?
increased T3 and T4 and decreased TSH
What will happen with TSH T3 and T4 with a pituitary adenoma
all will be high
What does the posterior pituitary secrete
ADH and Oxytocin
acidophils in anterior pituitary produce what 2 things
prolactin and growth hormone
type 1 diabetes involves autoimmune destruction of ?
with type 2 diabetes, what happen to islets of langerhans
they become amyloid ridden and fibrosis
secondary oocyte is arrested where prior to ovulation
meiosis I is completed by 1 primary oocyte each month
primary oocyte is arrested in what -- present at birth
when does oocyte complete Meiosis II
fertilization - if sperm penetration occurs
sertoli cells are involved with what barrier
blood testes barrier
where is prostate cancer usually located and where is benign prostatic hypertrophy usually located?
cancer is found in peripheral zone or posterior lobe
middle lobe and periurethral are involved in BPH
what protein is released from mitochondria and induces the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis ? what does it act on ?
what directly activates parietal cells
normally swallowing induces LES relaxation, but in this disease, there is high pressure at the LES and little to no decrease in pressure in response to swallowing
achalasia - no motility and loss of peristalsis
reduction or absence of myenteric (inhibitory intramural) neurons of smc in esoph
most common causes of pancreatitis
gallstones and alcohol
elevated serum amylase and lipase will occur with
these are secretory products of the pancreas
tight junctions are made up of what
caludin and ocludin
circumferential belt of actin just below tight junction; on ECM side cadherins form Ca2+ dependent bonds with other cadherins, coupling actin belts of two cells
desmosome is made up of
form an aqueous channel between adjacent cells allowing for exchange of small molecules & ions
jxns Key for conduction of depolarizing waves (eg in the heart
made up of
gap jxns -- connexins
hemi desmosme Utilizes ? rather than a cadherin as transmembrane adhesion protein
Also causes loose joints & slow wound healing1)
Ex: Cys475mut - single gene mutationa) 2) Caused by mutations in collagen alpha chain "beaded ribs" - at birth, many fractures in ribs3)
- group of inherited disorders where bones bend and easily fracture
what is name of this and what type of collagen is it associated with
collagen type I
Types IV & VII coll- network forming collagens, found in ?
transmembrane protein that facilitates linking of cells to ECM
Decreased salt delivery to the juxtaglomerular apparatus (sensed by macula densa) leads to increased ? secretion by the ?
Renin catalyzes the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
ang II induces the secretion of what in the zona glomerulosa
what does it induce?
constriction of efferent arterioles
? upregulates ENaC channels in the distal tubule & collecting duct, increasing sodium reabsorption
Water reabsorption is regulated by ADH in the collecting duct/late distal tubule
Cr - ?
Phosphate - ?
Calcium - ?
PTH - ?
Often electrolytes will also be disturbed, commonly hyperkalemia is a complication
Cr - very elevatedi. Phosphate - elevatedii. Calcium - decreasediii. PTH - elevated in response to low calcium, but calcium doesn't respondiv.
During contraction I bands slide over A bands, causing sarcomere to shorten via ? and ? band narrowing
I & H
? - regulates position of thick filaments
? - regulates length of thin filament
supporting protein tha tie contractile force generated by fibers to ECM
which layer of epidermis has stem cells
chronic disease of old age characterized by Ab formation against dystonin, a component of hemi-desmosomes; leads to separation of epidermis from basal lamina
epidermis with spiny appearance due to presence of many interlocking desmosomes with attached intermediate keratin filaments (tonofibrils)
failure of cells in spinosum & above to terminally differentiate - they continue to divide causing plaques to appear on skin; microscopically show that cells in stratum corneum retain nuclei
layer of epidermis comprised of water-impermeable shingles of dead keratinocytes (squames)
dermis layer that is loose, irregular layer with type III collagen (fine), elastic fibers, nerve fibers, capillaries, & papillae extending into epidermis
skin layer that is Loose, adipose rich layer that provides insulation & allows sliding of skin over underlying structures
where are vasa vasorum in BVs
? - less numerous, but primary transducers of sound
? - tied to the tectorial membrane, more numerous, used to sharpen frequency response in the cochlea by changing the stiffness of the tectorial membrane
inner hair cells
outer hair cells
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