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Unit 2: The Chemical Basis of Life
Terms in this set (22)
A molecule that provides energy for cellular reactions and precesses. ATP releases energy when one of its high energy bonds is broken to release a phosphate group.
The intermolecular attraction betweeb unlike molecules. Capillary actio results from the adhesive properties of water and the molecules that make up plant cells.
The smallest unit of an element that retains the chemical and physical properties of that element.
A group of biomacromolecules that interact with biological systems and their environments.
The scientific study of life
A macromolecule containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio and serves as a major source of energy for living things.
A substance that enables a chemical reaction to proceed at a usually faster rate or under different conditions that otherwise possible without being changed by the reaction.
The intermolecular attraction between like molecules. Surface tension results from cohesive properties of water.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A bioligical macromolecule that encodes the genetic information for living organisms and is capable of self-replicating and the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA)
A protein that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction; an organic catalyst.
The temperature below which a liquid turns into a solid.
A group of organic compounds composed mostly of carbon and hydrogen including a proportionately smaller amount of oxygen; are insoluble in water, serve as a source of stored energy, and are a component of cell membranes.
A polymer with a high molecular mass. Within organisms there are four main groups: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
The combination of components and processes that serve a common function.
The smallest particle of a substance that retains all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance and is composed of two or more atoms bonded together by chemical forces.
A molecule of any compound that can react with other molecules of the same or different compound to form a polymer. Each biological macromolecule has characteristic monomers.
A biological macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus that carries genetic information. (DNA and RNA)
A molecule containing carbon that is a part of or produced by living systems.
The measure of acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of an aqueous solution scaling from 1 (highly acidic) to 14 (highly alkaline) with a midpoint of 7 (neutral).
A macromolecue that contains the principal components of organisms: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen; and performs a variety of structural and regulatory functions for cells.
The measure of the heat energy required to increase the temperature of a unit quantity of a substance by a certain temperature interval.
A measure of the average kinetic energy (energy of motion) of particles in a sample of matter. This physical property can determine the rate and extent to which chemical reactions can occur within living systems. It is commonly measure in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit.
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