Biology Chapter 10 - new book
Terms in this set (52)
Limits to Cell Size
1) The Larger the cell is the harder it is for DNA to do its job.
2)The cell is less efficient in moving nutrients & wastes (exchange of materials)
3) The bigger the volume of the cell, the more waste it produces and needs to get rid of.
Ratio of surface area to volume
- the volume inside a cell increases faster than the surface area can keep up, so the cell divides to remain efficient
Division of the cell
1) creation of two new daughter cells
2)DNA is replicated
3)reduction of the cell volume (1/2)
1) offspring genetically the same
2) fast reproduction
3)from a single parent
4) Mostly single celled organisms (but there are some multi-celled organisms which use this type - ex. hydra)
5) occurs by mitosis
1) Fusion of two seperate parent cells (reproductive cells)
2) Offspring NOT identical to parents
3) inherit some genetic information from each parent, so it increases genetic diversity
4) Mostly plant, animal, and other multicellular organisms (but there are some single-celled organisms which use this type)
-sex cells (egg & sperm in humans)
-in humans each one has 23 chromosomes
-haploid (have only a single set of genes)
The process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells.
-chromosomes are visible only at this time
-the same in plant and animal cells, except for the cell plate in plant cells
1) Packages of DNA (book definition)
2)DNA wrapped around proteins called histones, which are tightly coiled.
3)Make it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division
1) the complex of chromosome and protein (book definition)
2) Makes up chromosome
1) Lack Nuclei
2)DNA found in cytoplasm
3) Binary Fission (form of asexual reproduction found in ______ _____)
1) DNA/chromosomes are found in nuclei
2) Histones (proteins that DNA is wrapped around to maximize the amount of DNA put in a cell)
1) Involves Interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis
2) The name of the process for how a cell grows, prepares for division and divides to form two daughter cells.
1) Part of the cell cycle
2) Prepares for mitosis
3) STEPS: G1, S, G2
4) In-between period of growth between the life of a cell and cell division
5) Cell spends the most time in this phase
1) First Phase of interphase
2) Period of Cell Growth
-checkpoint between the G1 and S phases in mammals' cells
1) Second Phase of interphase
2) Stands for synthesis, or the synthesis of new DNA
3) At the end of this phase, the cell has twice as much DNA because it has been replicated & centrioles duplicate
1) Last phase of interphase
2) Preparation for cell division
3) After this phase comes the M phase
1) The division of the nucleus
2) Four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
3) Also called M phase
4) Produces 2 cells with the same chromosomes
1) The Division of the Cytoplasm
2) Sometimes overlaps with mitosis
1) The longest and first phase of mitosis
2) Where the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the duplicated chromosomes become visible. Outside the nucleus, a spindle starts to form.
1) Where the duplicated strands of DNA are attached
1) the term for each strand of DNA in the duplicated chromosome
1) tiny paired structures that are attached to the centrosome
2) duplicate during S phase
1) the second and shortest phase of mitosis
2) Where the centromeres of the duplicated chromosomes line up across the MIDDLE of the cell. Spindle fibers connect the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle.
1) the third phase of mitosis
2)Where the chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell.
1) The fourth and final phase of mitosis
2) When the chromosomes, which were distinct and condensed, begin to spread into a tangle of chromatin. A nuclear envelope then forms around each cluster
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One Acronym to remember the cell cycle
G1, S, G2, Mitosis, cytokinesis
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Acronym to remember the steps of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
regulates the cell & regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
Where are the proteins that control the cell cycle?
regulatory proteins are inside and outside the cell
-respond to events occurring inside the cell allowing the cell cycle to proceed only when certain events have occured
-the p53 gene helps a cell respond to growth regulators
proteins that respond to events outside the cell that direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle
external regulatory proteins that stimulate the growth and division of cells, important in wound healing and embryonic development, most other external proteins have opposite effect
- process of programmed cell death where the cell undergoes a series of controlled steps leading to its destruction
- key role in shaping the structure of tissues & organs
-discovered by mapping the fate of the organism C. elegans
- disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control growth
What kind of signals do cancer cells not respond to?
They don't respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells, and as a result, the cells divide uncontrollably
Tumor (Benign & Malignant)
- mass of cells that form from cancer cells
- benign tumors are noncancerous
- malignant tumors are cancerous, that invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue
What Causes cancer?
defects in the genes that regulate cell growth and cell division
Treatments for cancer
if it is caught early enough, you can surgically remove the tumor
if not you can use radiation or chemotherapy
an organism in the earliest stage of development
- the adult organism is gradually produced from this
How do cells become specialized?
through the process of differentiation
Scientists have mapped the outcome of every cell division that leads to
...differentiation in the microscopic worm
Most cells in the adult are no longer capable of...
Totipotent cells are able to do __________.
Ex. fertilized egg and cells produced by first few cell divisions
about 4 days of development, an embryo forms into this hollow ball of cells with a cluster of cells inside known as the inner cell mass
- this attached to the mother's uterus
- they can develop into most, but not all, types of cells
- they are unable to form into the cells that surround an embryo
Can only be influenced to become a LIMITED variety of cells
Ex. adult stem cells
unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop and can become other types of cells
Embryonic Stem Cells can become...
blood cells, fat cells, neuron cells, and muscle cells
Potential benefits of stem cells
- using undifferentiated cells to repair or replace badly damaged cells and tissues
What is the main reason that embryonic stem cell research is considered ethically controversial?
- embryos are destroyed in the process
What is one new technology that can make stem cell research less controversial?
- developing the abilities to switch on the genes that make an adult cell pluripotent