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34 terms

Drug Class./Actions, Anemias, Bone Markings, etc. Chap 9-12

includes Common Anemias, pg 243, surface features of bones pg 270-271
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anticoagulants
Prevent blood clot formation by inhibiting the synthesis or inactivation one or more clotting factors (used to prevent DVT, stroke). (Chap. 9)
antifibrinolytics
Neutralize the fibrinolytic chemicals in the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and urinary tract to prevent the breakdown of blood clots (commonly used following certain surgeries and dental procedures esp. in patients w/ hemophilia). (Chap. 9)
antimicrobials
Destroy bacteria, fungi and protozoa by interfering w/ functions of cell membrane or reproductive cycle. (Chap. 9)
antivirals
Prevent replication of virus in host cells (treat HIV and AIDS). (Chap. 9)
fat soluble vitamins
Prevent and treat bleeding disorders resulting from a lack of prothrombin, commonly caused by a vitamin k deficiency. (Chap. 9)
thrombolytics
Dissolve blood clots by destroying their fibrin strands (used to lyse -break apart- thrombi that obstruct coronary, pulmonary and cerebral arteries). (Chap. 9)
trochanter
Projection; Non articulating surfaces. (Chap. 10)
tubercle, tuberosity
Projections; Sites of muscle and ligament attachment. (Chap. 10)
condyle, head
Articulating surfaces; Projections that form joints. (Chap. 10)
foramen, fissure, meatus, sinus
Depressions and openings; Sites for blood vessel, nerve, and duct passage. (Chap. 10)
calcium supplements
Treat and prevent hypocalcemia. (used to prevent osteoporosis). (Chap. 10)
gold salts
Treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by inhibiting activity in the immune system. (Contain actual gold. can prevent but not reverse damage). (Chap. 10)
non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
Decrease pain and suppress inflammation. (Used to treat sprains, strains, RA, osteoarthritis, bursitis, gout, tendinitis). (Chap. 10)
salicylates
Relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation. (aspirin = acetylsalicylic acid, used to treat arthritis). (Chap. 10)
skeletal muscle relaxants
Relieve muscle spasms an stiffness. (Used to treat MS, SCI, CP, and stroke). (Chap. 10)
aplastic (hypoplastic) anemia
Associated with bone marrow failure; Diminished RBCs, WBCs and platelets due to bone marrow suppression; Serious and can be fatal. Caused by exposure to cytotoxic agents, radiation, hepatitis virus and certain medications. (Chap. 9)
folic-acid deficiency anemia
RBCs are large and deformed with a diminished production rate and life span. Caused by insufficient folic acid intake. (Chap. 9)
Hemolytic anemia
Associated with premature destruction of RBCs, usu. accompanied by jaundice. Caused by excessive destruction of RBCs or by disorders such as sickle cell anemia, erythroblastosis. (Chap. 9)
Hemorrhagic anemia
Associated with loss of blood volume. Caused by acute blood loss. (Chap. 9)
Iron-deficiency anemia
Most common type of anemia world-wide. Caused by a greater demand on stored iron, commonly as a result of inadequate dietary intake or malabsorption of iron. (Chap. 9)
pernicious anemia
Chronic, progressive disorder found mostly in people older than 50; Treated with B12 injections. Caused by low B12 in peripheral RBCs. (Chap. 9)
Sickle cell anemia
Most common disorder in people of African descent; RBCs become crescent and irregularly shaped when O2 levels are low, preventing cells from entering capillaries and resulting in severe pain and internal bleeding. Caused by defect in gene responsible for Hgb synthesis. (Chap. 9)
antibiotics
Treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract by acting on the bacterial membrane or one of its metabolic processes. (Chap. 11)
antispasmodics
Decrease spasms in the urethra and bladder by relaxing the smooth muscle lining their walls, allowing normal emptying of the bladder. (Chap. 11)
diuretics
Promote and increase excretion or urine. (Used to treat edema, hypertension, heart failure, renal and hepatic diseases). (Chap. 11)
potassium supplements
Replace potassium due to depletion cause by diuretics. (Chap. 11)
androgens
Increase testosterone levels. (Used to correct hormone deficiency and delayed puberty in males). (Chap. 11)
anti-impotence agents
Treat erectile dysfunction (impotence) by increasing blood flow to the penis, resulting in an erection. (Chap. 11)
antifungals
Treat vaginal yeast infection by altering the yeast cell membrane or interfering with a metabolic process. (Chap. 12)
estrogens
Treat symptoms of menopause through HRT (hormone replacement therapy). (Chap. 12)
oral contraceptives
Prevent ovulation. (Chap. 12)
oxytocics
Induce labor at term by increasing strength and frequency of contractions. Also used to control bleeding after the expulsion of the placenta. (Chap. 12)
prostaglandins
Terminate pregnancy. Cause the uterus to contract strongly enough to abort the fetus. (Chap. 12)
spermicides
Chemically destroy sperm by creating a highly acidic environment in the uterus. Have a higher failure rate than other birth control. (Chap. 12)