BIO: Reproductive System
Terms in this set (133)
During which week of development does the male and female embryos start develoing differently?
What does the Y chromosome cause?
Secretion of testosterone and stimulates the development of male reproductive organs
What does the lack of the Y chromosome cause?
Development of female reproductive organs
What is a period of rapid growth and sexual maturation during which the reproductive system becomes fully functional?
Which ages does puberty hit males?
Which ages does puberty hit females?
What is the first menstrual Cycle?
Puberty begins in the brain, ____________ signals the _______________ to produce hormones that affect the gonads
Hypothalamus; pituitary gland
What is secreted by the pituitary gland and stimulates the cells in the testes to produce increased amounts of testosterone?
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
What is secreted by the pituitary gland and stimulates the development of sperm?
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
What is secreted by the testes, causes the physical changes in males associated with puberty, such as facial hair, increased muscular development, and deepened voice, and stimulates the development of sperm?
What do the testes produce?
Sperm and testosterone
What is the male reproductive organ containing the urethra, through which sperm and urine pass out of the body?
What is the "bag" of skin that surrounds the testes?
What are the male gonads that are the primary male reproductive organs?
What are clusters of tiny tubules, within each testis, where sperm develop?
What is the structure in which sperm mature and are stored?
What does the sperm move through from the epididymis?
What is the tube that extends upward from the scrotum into the urethra into the abdominal cavity eventually merges with the urethra?
What is the tube that leads to the outside of the body through the penis?
What nourishes the sperm and protects them from the acidity of the female reproductive tract and produced by glands lining the reproductive tract?
What is the combination of sperm and seminal fluid and provides nutrients for sperm and control pH?
How many sperm are present in 1 milliliter of semen?
About how many sperm are present in one drop of semen?
What contains a highly condensed nucleus in the sperm?
What does the tip of the head, which is a small cap, contain?
Enzymes vital to fertilization
Packed with energy-releasing mitochondria?
What is the flagellum, which propels the cell forward?
How far can sperm swim an hour?
What is the survival time inside the female reproductive tract?
What is the process that surgically removes the foreskin that covers the glans of the penis, which is usually done a few hours or days after birth?
What is the failure to get or maintain an erection?
What starts in females when the hypothalamus signals the pituitary gland to release FSH and LH?
What are female gonads, the primary reproductive organs of the female?
What stimulates cells within the ovaries to produce increased amounts of estrogen and start to produce egg cells?
How many primary follicles do each ovary contain at puberty?
How many eggs, or ova, are released in a woman's lifetime?
When does an overly release one mature ovum?
Every 28 days
What is a tube like structure approximately 9 cm long. Receives sperm during intercourse and provides a passageway for a baby to leave the mothers body during childbirth?
What is a muscular organ where a fetus grows and develops until birth?
What is the entry way to the uterus?
What are reproductive organs that carry eggs from the ovary to the uterus and provide the site where fertilization usually takes place?
Fallopian tubes or uterine tubes
What are the things that look like fingers at the end of the Fallopian tubes called?
What is the fatty area overlying the pubic symphysis. Covered by pubic hair after puberty?
What are skin folds?
What are hair covered skin folds, that enclose the labia minora, and also enclose the vestibule?
What are delicate, hair free, skin folds?
What contain erectile tissue, corresponds to the male penis, and is sillier to the penis since is has a hooded prepuce, composed of sensitive erectile tissue, and become swollen with blood during sexual excitement?
What make a small amount of fluid that lubricates te vaginal lips?
Greater vestibular gland (bartholin's glands)
What is a test that can detect cervical cancer and some STDs?
What is a regular sequence of events involving the ovaries, the lining of the uterus, and the endocrine system?
What is the menstrual Cycle regulated by?
Hormones made by Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries
What is the menstrual Cycle controlled by?
Internal feedback mechanisms
What are the phases of the menstrual Cycle?
Follicular phase, ovulation, luteal phase, and menstruation
During the menstrual Cycle what develops within a follicle and is released from an ovary?
What is prepared to receive a fertilized egg during the menstrual Cycle?
What happens to an egg when it isn't fertilized during the menstrual Cycle?
It is discharged along with the uterus lining
What happened is an egg is fertilized during the menstrual Cycle?
Embryonic development begins and the menstrual Cycle ends
Which phase occurs during the days 1-10/12?
What is the estrogen level during the follicular phase?
What is triggered by estrogen to trigger the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH?
What begins to rise during the follicular phase?
FSH and LH
Where does FSH and LH go during the follicular phase, causing a follicle to mature?
What increases towards the end follicular phase?
What is produced by cells surrounding the egg and causes the uterus to thicken towards the end follicular phase?
What are the LH levels towards the end follicular phase?
What decreases during the end of the follicular phase?
What continues to increase during ovulation?
What increases then bursts during ovulation?
LH and FSH
What does the rise in LH and FSH cause?
Follicle to rupture
What is the release of a egg from the ovary into one of the Fallopian tubes?
What is the ruptured follicle that releases estrogens and progesterone?
What does the corpus luteum stimulate?
Growth an development of the blood supply and surrounding tissue in the uterine lining
What is the greatest chance for fertilization?
First two days of the luteal phase, immediately following ovulation
What decreases when the corpus luteum breaks down and estrogen levels fall?
LH and FSH
What do low estrogen levels lead to?
The release of FSH and LH
What begins during the luteal phase in result of low estrogen levels?
What causes the lining of the uterus to detach from the uterus to detach from the uterine wall at the start of the new follicular phase?
Low estrogen levels
What is the tissue along with blood and unfertilized egg, are discharged through the vagina during?
What is the permanent stopping of the menstrual Cycle as a result of low estrogen levels?
What ceases if a woman becomes pregnant?
What happens if a sperm fertilizes an egg?
The egg completes meiosis and immediately undergoes mitosis
What happens after several divisions?
A ball of cells will form and implant itself in the lining of the uterus
What do the uterus and embryo keep functioning after several weeks after they begin to release hormones?
what is the fusion of a sperm and egg cell?
What happens when a sperm enters the egg?
the egg releases a material that coats its surface
what does the coating around the egg prevent?
other sperms from attaching to and entering the egg
what are the eight stages of fertilization the egg goes through?
ovulation, fertilization, zygote, 2 cells, 4 cells, morula, blatocyst, and then the blatocyst attaches to the uterine wall
what is a solid ball of 64 cells?
what is the result of two eggs being released during the same menstrual cycle and each being fertilized?
what is the result of a single zygote splitting apart and producing two genetically identical embryos?
what is the fertilized egg and at this point the developing human can also be called an embryo?
while still in the Fallopian tube what does the zygote undergo?
what is a hollow ball of cells?
After six or seven days after fertilization, the blastocyst attaches to the wall of the uterus and begins to grow into the tissues of the mother, what is this called?
what is a cluster of cells that develops within the inner cavity of the blastocyst?
inner cell mass
what is a sac filled with amniotic fluid that cushions and protects the developing embryo?
what is a sac that forms just outside the amnion and makes direct contact with the tissues of the uterus?
what are fingerlike projections that form on the outer surface of the chorion and extend into the uterine lining around the end of week 3?
what is a vital organ formed by the chorionic villi and uterine lining?
What does the connection between the mother and the embryo act as?
the embryo's organ of respiration, nourishment, and excretion
where does the placenta exchange occur?
what is the embryo called after eight weeks of development ?
what are fully formed by the end of three months?
most of the major organs and tissues and the muscular system
what does the fetus begin to do in the first trimester?
to move and show signs of reflexes
how big is the fetus by trimester one?
8 cm long and 28 grams
what becomes large enough so that it can be heard with a stethoscope in the second trimester?
what replaces cartilage that forms the early skeleton in months 4-6?
what grows over the skin of the fetus during the second trimester?
a layer of soft skin
what does the mother begin to feel during the second trimester?
the fetus moving
what happens to the fetus during the trimester?
doubles in mass, and the lungs and other organs undergo changes to prepare them for life outside the uterus
what is the fetus able to do during the last trimester?
can regulate its own body temperature
what complete their development during the last trimester?
central nervous system and lungs
how long does it take for a fetus to fully develop?
what are babies born before eight months of development called?
what do premature babies often have because of incomplete lung development?
severe breathing problems
what hormone does the pituitary gland release during childbirth?
what does oxytocin affect?
a group of large of involuntary muscles in the uterine wall
what do the series of rhythmic contractions stimulated by oxytocin collectively known as?
what happens to the cervix during childbirth?
expands until its large enough for the head of the baby to pass through
what comes out of the vagina during childbirth?
amniotic sac breaks and the fluid it contains
what forces the baby out through the vagina?
what is clamped and cut off of the baby?
what is the final set of uterine contractions the placenta and amniotic sac that are expelled from the uterus?
what is a fertilized egg that implants somewhere outside the uterus called?
what is an implantation in the uterine tube called and what does it result in?
tubule pregnancy, in a medical emergency
what is a lifelong illness, with no cure, and is a virus?
what are viruses with no cure?
HIV, HPV, and Herpes
what is caused by the bacteria Treponema Pallidum and can be cured by using antibiotics?
what is caused by the bacteria Neisseria Gonorroheae and has a cure?
what is caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis and can be cured by metronidazole and tinidazole?
what is caused by the bacteria chlamydia trachomatis and can be cured?
1 in 4 girls and young women between what ages were infected with an STD?
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