135 terms

T21 WH: Semester 2 Exam Review Set (Ultimate Baby!!!!)

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imperialism
the complete domination or control of a country by another; that control can be military, economic, or political
kaiser
another term for emperor, used in Eastern Europe and Germany
social Darwinism
this theory was born from a scientist's ideas about natural selection; it is a twisted theory that wrongly justifies racist beliefs
India
the "jewel in the crown" of the British empire
nationalism
a deep devotion to one's country that places it above all others
unification
this is what Italy and Germany had in common in the late 1800s; Italy did it from 1861-70 and Germany did it in 1871
aristocracy
elite or upper class
tenement
run-down, shack-like apartment buildings in cities during the Industrial Age
standard of living
the quality of one's lifestyle
prime minister
the head of a country's government, similar in power to a US president
Aborigines
a hunter-gatherer group that settled in Australia about 50,000 years ago
New Zealand
an island nation that was taken over by the British in 1840
impacts of the Industrial Revolution
children often worked long hours in factories; craftspeople were put out of work by cheaper and faster factories; cities became over-crowded
socialism
an ideology that attracted many working-class people because of its call for an even distribution of wealth
Impressionism
a style of art that artists created when the new invention of the camera could "out-do" their efforts at creating realistic paintings
Conservatives
prefer capitalism; tend to be the "Haves"; want to prefer traditional ways and resist change
Liberals
prefer socialism; tend to be the "Have nots"; want to find new ways for improving society
Dark side of nationalism
glorified war and military conquest of other nations
Bright side of nationalism
promoted freedom from foreign control
Britain's imperialism in India
For India, there were some advantages to this, such as gaining a telegraph system, railroads, postal services, and paved roads; mostly, however, this put hardships on 300 million Indians
Australia
initially used by Britain as a prison colony
Scramble for Africa
eager to gain raw materials for their factories, Europeans carved up Africa amongst themselves to rule
Spanish-American War
this made America a legitimate imperial power, because after defeating Spain, America took over Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines
emperor Meiji
this leader of Japan was highly interested in modernizing his island nation; he sent officials to learn from the West, and he ordered the construction of a modern navy, railroad, and factory system
Crimean War
this served as a "wake up call" for Russia, making it obvious to them that they needed reforms in education, an end to serfdom, and overall Westernization if they were going to avoid being bullied by European powers
Canada
this was a French colony that the British took over in 1763; as a result of it's French roots, some people in this country still speak French today
Mexico
when this Spanish colony became independent, things were set up in a way that heavily favored white, upper class elites
Westernization
becoming industrialized and modern; adopting Western ideas and values
global warming
the idea that the earth's climate is changing, thus posing a danger to humans and the earth's species
Palestine
former Arab region that now mostly makes up the country of Israel
Al Qaeda
the terrorist organization behind the 9/11 attacks
preemptive war
attacking a country even if they have not attacked or threatened your country
greenhouse gases
pollutants that collect in the atmosphere, trapping the sun's heat
developing nations
the world's poorest countries, also known as the "Third World"
CIA
American government agency that has used spy techniques in global affairs
poverty
James Wolfensohn argues in the textbook that this is the greatest threat to world peace
Israel
after WWI and WWII, Jews from Europe immigrated to Palestine, and it eventually became the nation of _________.
Arab-Israeli Wars
Fought after the formation of the Jewish nation in the region that was Palestine
Shah
the monarch of Iran from 1951-1979 that the USA supported; he was eventually overthrown
9/11
Attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon in 2001; carried out by the Al Qaeda organization
Persian Gulf War
in the 1991 when Iraq invaded Kuwait, the USA led an attack against the Iraqis; this conflict was known as the ________________________
Arab Spring
widespread demonstrations and protests in the Middle East demanding greater personal freedoms and economic opportunities
Saddam Hussein
Leader of Iraq until 2003 when USA invaded
consequences of preemptive war
since NATO and the United Nations did not support the USA's invasion of Iraq in 2003, some historians argue that the USA might be hurting it's longterm interests
biggest threat to American democracy today
a nation where people don't value and respect the study of history
US capitalist economy today
the middle class is shrinking and the gap between the rich and the poor is growing
Kyoto Agreement
the USA did not approve this plan to limit the production of greenhouse gases, which is ironic because the USA is one of the world's largest polluters
globalism
interconnected caused by international trade, communications, and media
recession
an economic downturn
John Maynard Keynes
an economist who said that the government should interfere with the economy in order to stabilize it by raising or lowering taxes and government spending
China's authoritarian capitalism
economically, China has moved to a capitalist system that mirrors the USA's; politically, China suppresses free speech and other human rights
New world order
Western nations have started to fear losing their dominant position in the world because areas that were once poor or defeated (China, Japan, India) are now some of the fastest growing economies in the world
command economy
when a government decides what products will be produced and at what price
Africa, Asia, and Latin America
these three regions have in common two things: they contain a lot of former colonies, and they contain the world's poorest nations today
Latin American anger toward USA
this is the result of Cold War situations in which the USA seemed to support dictators and wealthy elites instead of the improvement of living conditions for regular people
Serbian "ethnic cleansing"
A Christian majority in this situation was brutally killing Muslims of the Kosovo area
Marshall Plan
US policy that invested billions of dollars in Western Europe to strengthen them against communism
NATO
A military alliance between the USA and Western European powers
Berlin Wall
It was symbolic of the divide between capitalism and communism
Berlin Airlift
Truman's response to Stalin's blockade
Containment
US foreign policy to keep communism from spreading
Domino Theory
This was the belief that once one country fell to communism, then another would, then another would, then another would, then another would
1945
End of WWII
1947
Truman Doctrine, Monroe Plan, India/Pakistan partition
1948-49
Berlin Airlift
1950-53
Korean War
1959
Cuban Revolution
1962
Cuban Missile Crisis
Proxy wars
Even though the USA and USSR didn't fight directly during the Cold War, they did support opposing sides in various conflicts
guerrilla war
War tactic where the enemy attacks and disappears; there are no front lines, no large battles
Lyndon Johnson
President of USA during Vietnam War
Kim Il Sung
First leader of North Korea
Gulf of Tonkin Incident
The US Congress responded to this alleged attack by giving Johnson permission to declare war in Vietnam
Tet Offensive
This series of attacks began to change American public opinion about the Vietnam War
Reason for American withdrawal from Vietnam War
American public opinion turned against the war; it did not appear like progress was being made
Vietnamese reasons for fighting
They had been colonized by the French, taken over by the Japanese in WWII, had the French try to take them back over after WWII, and they wanted to be free from any foreign control
Cold War
A decades-long struggle between western capitalist democracies and communist-controlled, Soviet Union-aligned nations
1957
Sputnik + Laika (first satellite, first dog in space)
1969
Neil Armstrong (first person on moon)
2016
SpaceX first self-landing rocket
Mutually Assured Destruction
this was why the USA and USSR built so many more nukes than were needed
space race
this was one more way that the Cold War between the USA and the USSR played out; when Soviets launched the first satellite into space, this began
Warsaw Pact
a Cold War military alliance amongst USSR-aligned nations, mostly in Central Asia and Eastern Europe
Mikhail Gorbachev
this leader called for making the USSR more open, democratic, and capitalist
USA
the only remaining superpower after 1991
1991 December
collapse of the Soviet Union
1949
Chinese communist revolution (Mao Zedong)
United Nations
an assembly of world nations whose objective it is to promote peace and cooperation
civil disobedience
when a person refuses to obey certain laws because those laws are unjust or wrong; this is a protest strategy
Mao Zedong
first ruler of communist China
imperialism
this became unacceptable after Germany, Italy, and Japan's action prior to and during WWII; it was no longer "enlightened" or acceptable to hold colonies
Gandhi
a lawyer who became famous for his use of nonviolent protest
People's Republic of China
this began after peasants successfully carried out a communist revolution
China today
although still an authoritarian state, there is no longer a command economy here; in other words, they now have a free market
representational art
this actually "looks like" something
abstract art
this doesn't look like anything in particular; it focuses on the basic components of art like line, color, texture, etc.
why communism doesn't work
when people have no incentive to work hard, no reason to make sure they do their best work, then they typically don't work hard and well
fall of the Soviet Union
when this happened, there was only one superpower remaining in the world: 'Murka
Balkans
a region of many cultures and ethnic groups in Europe, north of Greece
Woodrow Wilson
Under this US President, America entered WWI
Reparations
Payments for damages
Karl Marx
A German philosopher; he predicted that the workers of the world would eventually overthrow capitalism
Bolsheviks
the communist political party in Russia, organized by Vladimir Lenin
Susan B. Anthony
a leader of the American suffragist movement
Winston Churchill
Prime minister of England during WWII
Franklin Roosevelt
Under this US President, Pearl Harbor was bombed and the US entered WWII
Embargo
an official government ban on trade with a particular country
Hiroshima
The city in Japan where the atomic bomb was dropped on humans for the first time
League of Nations
An idea of US President Wilson that called for 60 countries to meet to discuss world issues in hopes to maintaining world peace
Propaganda
a systematic effort to manipulate the public and to spread ideas or beliefs that favor a certain group or effort
Totalitarian
when a government seeks complete control over its citizens lives
entangling alliances
These led to WWI because when one nation attacked another, the attacked nation's allies would have to declare war, creating a chain reaction that led to WWI
Central Powers of WWI
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Allies of WWI
France, Russia, Britain, US
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
When he was assassinated, it created the "spark" that set off WWI
WWI military technological advancements
airplanes, tanks, submarines, trench fortifications, barbed wire, poison gas
America joining WWI
Germany's use of unrestricted submarine warfare made American opinion turn against Germany, and American businesses were fearful of losing money loaned to Allied powers
Treaty of Versailles
At the end of WWI, this punished Germany by taking away its overseas colonies, its military, and much of its finances
Vladimir Lenin
become the first leader of Russia after the Russian Revolution toward the end of WWI
labor unions
organized groups of workers that sought better working conditions
strike
workers all stop working for a period of time so as to force factory owners to agree to better pay and working conditions
Great Depression
a worldwide economic downturn in the 1930s
fascism
a political movement that called for strong nationalism, obedience to the state, and (often) violence and war
Franco
fascist leader of Spain who defeated the republican government in an intense civil war; he was aided by the Nazi Luftwaffe
Hitler
leader of a fascist group called the Nazis
Mussolini
fascist leader of Italy
Stalin
he was a communist leader in Russia who replaced Lenin
Japan
sought to use foreign conquest to secure the resources it needed
reasons for appeasement
Britain and France hoped to avoid a second world war
Allies of WWII
France, Great Britain, Russia, USA
Axis powers of WWII
Germany, Italy, Japan
Pearl Harbor
the event that officially brought the USA into WWII
Final Solution
Hitler's plan to commit genocide against the Jews of Europe
Hitler's mistake
invading Russia and failing to conquer it
atomic bomb
the US used this to force the Japanese to surrender