Definitions and examples as preparation for Othello and other Literary works
a literary art form that recreates human like and human life and emotions. The medium is dialogue and action within a frame of sequential events. It has both written form (a script) and a living form (the stage presentation)
a cleansing or purifying of emotion used in Tragedy
a drama that gives the audience an experience of catharsis. The protagonist, a person of nobility, must make a moral decision that in turn infuences the outcome of the drama. The protagonist usually has a serious fault - the tragic flaw - that leads to his downfall and death. The terror and pity felt bu the audience produces a catharsis.
a fourteen line stanza consiting of iambic penatmeter lines. The two major sonnet forms are the Italian and English.
Types of Drama
Farse, Tragedy, Comedy, and Romantic Tragedy
Example of Tragic Flaw
Romeo and Juliet: Friar tricks parents instead of having them own their actions. Once he has lied, reached point of no return.
English/ Shakespearean Sonnet Format
3 quatrains, 1 couplet: abab cdcd efef gg
Example of English/ Shakespearean Sonnet
Sonnet 73 by Shakespear
Sonnet 73 Stanza 1
Seasons: birth/ spring, middle/ fall, old/ winter
Sonnet 73 Stanza 2
Day: birth/ rise, middle age/ noon, old/ dusk, death/ night
She is showing more love and kindness because she knows he won't live forever
Italian/ Patrarchan Sonnet Format
1 octave, 1 sestet: abbaabba (cdecde, cdccdc, or cdcdcd)
Heroic Couplet/ Closed Couplet
consits of two successive rhyming verses that contain a complete thought within two lines. It usually consits of iambic pentameter lines.
a character who is presented as a contrast to a second character so as to point to or show to advantage some aspect of the second character
Example of Foil
John Proctor and Abigail from "The Crucible"
a dramatic convention that allows a character to be seen by the audience, but remain hidden from fellow actors. This conventions shows the differing perceptions of the various characters.
allows a character to speak his or her thoughts aloud, but not directly to the audience; insight to private thoughs like a thought bubble or monologue
Example of Soliloquy
Romeo and Juliet: Juliet talking in her room with Romeo below. She doesn't think anyone can hear her thoughts.
a convention that letas a character speak directly to the audience ithout belong overheard by the other characters. This conventions permits emphasis of character difference, and audience involvement on a more personal level.
Example of Aside
The scene of Juliet's Soliloquy freezes for Romeo to speak to the audience
poem addressing a silent reader, similarly to a soliloquy. can be stream of consciousness
Example of Dramatic Monologue
"The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"
occurs when a character's words or acts carry a larger meaning he doesn ot percieve. The audience, however, is fully aware of the character's situation and can realize the full importance of the action
Example of Dramatic Irony
Othello: "Honest" Iago
a common man (not a god) who is torn between forces and who inevitably becomes a victim
the serious flaw that leads to the tragic hero's downfall and eventual death
when a concealed character hears the words or sees the actions of another character.
Example of Overhearing
Romeo and Juliet: Romeo listens to Juliet's Soliloquy before his Aside
the presentation of material in a work in such a way that later events are prepared for. It can result from the establishment of a mood or atmosphere
Example of Foreshadowing
Romeo and Juliet: Friar (an herbist) distinguishes the good and evil in everything, then points out the poison
a device which presents scenes or incidents that occuring prior to the opening scene of the work
Example of Flashback
House: scenes that show events prior to the medical complication
a song or peom expressing sorrow or lamentation, especially for one who is dead, NOT A EULOGY
Example of Elegy
"Candle in the Wind", Elton John
the quality in something experienced or observed which arouses feeling of pity, sorrow, sympathy, or compassion
a play on words based upon the similarity of sound between two words which convey a different meaning
Example of Pun
Mrs. Stinebaugh to Alex, "Take your hands out of my drawers!"
usually a play based on a romantic plot and developed sensationally, with little regard for motivation and with an excessive appeal to the emotions of hte audience
provides exposition, creates tone, defines setting, and introduces characters. It is the background info essential to understanding the play
the rising action; the building of tension caused bythe conflict of opposing interests. The complication peaks at the moment of crisis
the peak of action and emotional intensity. From this zenith, action and intensity must necessarily decline, so is also called the turning point
stresses actoin from teh forces opposing the protagonist. Suspense must be maintained while the action moves swiftly and logicallyl toward the disaster, the tragedy.
The moment marking the hero's tragic failure, often mani9fested by his death. This moment of tragedy satisfies the audience in its logical comformity to the order of events and in teh mobility of the dying hero.
figure in which a similarity between tow objects are directly expressed uing "like" or "as"
Example of Similie
Her legs were like Sequoia trees.
an implied analogy identifying one object withanother and ascribing to the first object one or more of the qualities of the second
Example of Metaphor
Mr. Rupnik is stale bread.
the use of exaggeration for the sake of emphasis
Example of Hyperbole
"That took you forever!"
a figure that endows animals, ideas, abstractions, and inanimate objects with human form; the represending of imaginary creatures or things as having human personalities, intelligence and emotions
Example of Personification
A broken record sounds charming compared to my student teacher in Mr. Galucy's class.
juxtaposing two words with opposite meaning
Example of Oxymoron
jumbo shrimp, open secret, larger half, freezer burn, living dead, minor crisis, unbiased opinion
an apparently self- contadictory statement, the underlying meaning of which is revealed only carefel scrutiny. The purpose is to arrest attention and provoke free thought.
Example of Paradox
Orwell's "Animal Farm": "All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than the other."
the substition of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself
Example of Metonymy
news from the oval office, confirmation from the whitehouse, The B.L.T. left without paying
addresses someone or something as though they are there, but they are not
Example of Apostrophe
"Rain, rain, go away. Come again some other day!", "Oh darkness, why do you scare me so?"
the repetition of an initial consonant sound
Example of Alliteration
Parkland, in PA, is a particulary populated public school.
Example of Consonance
"They plucked and anchor out of the aching deep.", "last but not least"
the repetition of consonant sounds anywhere in group of words
the repetition of vowel sounds anywhere in a group of words
Example of Assonance
"The Bee Meeting," by Sylvia Plath: "Strips of tinfoil winking like people"
a trope in which a part signifies the whole part
Examples of Synechdoche
All hands on deck, all eyes up here, get you but over here
a form of an understatement in which a thing is affirmed by stating hte negative of its opposite
Example of Litotes
Monty Python: "It's just a flesh wound!!!"
a rhetorical device in which irreconcilable opposites or strongly contrasting ideas are placed in sharp juxtaposition and sustained tension
Example of Antithesis
Shakespear: "Fair is foul, and foul is fair", "they promised freedom and provided slavery"
the analysis of patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables to establish the metrical or rhythmical pattern of a poem
a three line stanza or is three lines of verse within a larger unit that usually rhymes
four rhymed lines that can be: aaaa, abab, aabb, or abac
Five line stanza that may have any on of several rhyme schemes
six line stanza that is sometimes used to refer to the last six lines of an Italian sonnet
seven line stanza
an eight line stanza with numerous possibilites for different rhyme schemes and is often used to refer to the first eight lines of a sonnet.
a line of poetry that contains five feet per line and two syllables per foot. the second syllable is always stressed
Example of Iambic Penameter
Shakespear: ˘A /jug l ˘of /wine l ˘a /loaf l ˘of /bread l ˘and /thou. l
consists of lines of iambic pentameter without end rhyme
consists of lines that do not have a regular meter and do not contain rhyme; absence of any rules
the pattern of stress and unstressed syllables established in a line of poetry. The stressed syllable (/) is also called the accented or long syllable. The unstressed (˘) syllable is also called the unaccented or short syllable. In determining the it, the position in the metrical patter, and other linguistics factors should be considered. In identifying it in a line of a free verse, the type and number of feet are considered.
a unit of measure. A metrical one can have two or three syllables, but any type generally consits of one stressed on one or more unstressed syllables. A line may have one, two, etc. Poetic lines are classified according to the number of it in a line.
Types of Feet
Iamb, Trochee, Anapest, Dactyl, Spondee, and Pyrrhic
a two syllable foot wit hthe stress on the second syllable
Example of Iamb
˘be /low, ˘de /light, ˘a /muse
foot consisting of a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed syllable
Example of Trochee
/ne ˘ver, /ga ˘ther, /hap ˘py
foot consisting of three syllables with the stress on the last syllable
Example of Anapest
˘cav ˘a /lier
foot containing three syllables with the stress on the first syllable
Example of Dactyl
/tan ˘ger ˘ine, /mur ˘mur ˘ing
foot containing two stressed syllables. Compound words are often good examples are used for variation
Example of Spondee
/well /loved, /pan /cake, /rail /road
foot consiting of two unstressed syllables. This type of food is rare and found interspersed with other feet.