Upgrade to remove ads
8th Grade Science Final -
Terms in this set (93)
Descriptive words, observations that cannot be measured, dealing with letters
true, The scientific method was developed to help scientists organize the process of solving problems.
The scientific method was developed to help scientists organize the process of solving problems. (True/False)
The continents and ocean basins are part of Earth's __________.
Data with numbers, bservations that can be measured
Water covers nearly ___ of the Earth's surface
design an experiment
How do you test a hypothesis
true, A control group is used as a comparison to the group where things (variables) are changing.
A control group is used as a comparison to the group where things (variables) are changing. T/f
nitrogen and oxygen
The most abundant gases in the atmosphere are
Nearly_% of the Earth's freshwater is frozen in glaciers and polar ice caps.
false, Experiments are conducted 100's of times to get best results.
Experiments are usually conducted one time and by one team to speed up the scientific process. T/f
false, A dependent variable is a factor that changes because of procedures conducted on the independent variable.
An independent variable is a factor that changes because of procedures conducted on the dependent variable.t/f
Molten metal, mostly iron
Thick layers of hot rock
false, experiments test one variable at a time
Experiments often test multiple variables.t/f
Only about __% of the hydrosphere is fresh water
Thin, rocky shell that includes continents and seafloor
Develop a hypothesis
Develop and perform an experiment
Record the results
Write a conclusion
The steps of the scientific method?
Is the mixture of gasses and particles that surrounds and protects the surface of Earth is called __.
__is made up of all the water on Earth in oceans, lakes, glaciers, rivers, streams and underground.
Minerals are made of elements that form crystals. Rocks are made of one or more minerals
How do you distinguish a rock from a mineral?
magnet, flashlight, piece of tile, nail
What set of tools would be most useful for a geologist to have help them determine what type of mineral they have uncovered?
hardness, luster, density and streak
What are the best characteristics to use to identify different minerals?
build a structure using some of her construction blocks
Samantha is explaining to her brother how rocks and minerals are related to each other. She wants to use some of her toys to help with her explanation. What kind of toys would she use?
What type of properties are best used by a geologist to differentiate one mineral from another?
Minerals are inorganic crystals
Rocks are made of one or more minerals
Minerals are substances that are found in nature
Name 3 true statements about minerals
Scientists identify the elements that compose the minerals
How do scientists classify different minerals?
The process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces is known as?
Suppose some igneous rocks are forced back down into the Earth where they melt. When they eventually cool and harden again, what kind of rocks will they be?
When rocks are broken down into small pieces, like sand and gravel, the pieces are known as?
What process can push surface rocks deep down into the Earth
It must melt, then cool and harden
What must happen to a sedimentary rock in order for it to change into an igneous rock?
Which type of rock forms when heat and pressure are applied?
geologists found a metamorphic rock
A geologist found a rock whose minerals have been squeezed into parallel bands by high pressure. What kind of rock did the geologist find?
Rock material is deposited in layers
The process of formation of sedimentary rocks takes place when
Over time ____ are formed by pressure on sediment deposits.
What type of rock forms when rocks are exposed to weathering, erosion and lithification?
Small pieces of rock are compacted and cemented together
Sedimentary rocks form when___?
Fossils are found only in _____ rock?
The igneous rock could have been heated and squeezed by millions of years until new mineral grains and new textures formed in the rock.
A geologist claims that a metamorphic rock was once an igneous rock. How could the igneous rock have turned into a metamorphic rock?
A granite body weathered and eroded. Pieces of the granite were rounded into pebbles as they traveled down a river.
A geologist discovers a layer of rock made of granite pebbles that are cemented together with a mixture of quartz and clay. How could the pebbles in this layer have formed?
Lava once flowed on the surface of the moon
When the astronauts went to the Moon, they collected a variety of rocks. One rock type they collected is dark grey to black, made of microscopic crystals interlocking with each other. This rock is evidence that ____
Which type of rock is formed when magma from deep inside the earth comes to the surface and cools down to become a solid?
At the base of a volcano
Where is a geologist most likely to find an igneous rock
What type of rock is formed from magma?
It turned solid very slowly
Granite is an igneous rock with large crystals. What does the size of the crystals tell you about granite?
Weathering and decomposition of organisms
Which processes are primarily responsible for the formation of soil?
A mixture of rock, pieces of mineral, organic matter, bacteria and water is called
The minerals present in the soil of an area will depend on the ___?
Decompose dead animals and plants
Bacteria play an important role in soil formation because they___?
The process by which rock minerals are changed by natural processes into new substances is known as:
The climate and rock type of the area
The rate of weathering in a region is determined mostly by:
Weak acid breaks down minerals by reacting with them
An example of chemical weathering is ____?
Caverns and sinkholes are created by ____?
The process by which oxygen reacts with iron minerals in rock to form rust is called?
Which common rock type is easily broken down by weak acid in groundwater?
Warm and humid
Chemical weathering is most active in what type of climate?
The breaking of rock into pieces by physical means is called?
Mechanical Weathering can split rocks apart
As plant roots grow in diameter they can split rock apart. This is known as __?
When water gets into tiny cracks it can break rock apart. This is because when water freezes, it___?
From warm areas to cold areas
The process of convection transfers heat energy
temperature and pressure differences
Wind is caused by
The process in which water vapor changes to liquid water
If the dew point temperature is very near the air temperature, it means that the air is very
Water vapor in the air will begin to condense
If the temperature outside is falling, what will happen when the air temperature reaches the dew point temperature
Not a form of precipitation
Which planet is closest to the sun?
Which planet in our solar system is closest in size to Earth?
A planet has a dense atmosphere and is the brightest planet when seen from Earth.
The length of its year
What is a characteristic of a planet depends upon its distance from the Sun?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
inner planets in order from the nearest to the farthest from the sun.
The largest objects in our solar system to orbit the Sun
They are composed mostly of rock
They are composed mostly of rock
Smaller than Venus and Earth
Comparing the planets Mars, Venus, and Earth by size you could say that Mars is
Largest of the four inner planets
Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune
Uranus and Neptune
Which two outer planets are similar to each other in appearance
They all have rings around them
What do Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have that the other planets do not have?
What is jupiter's Great Red Spot?
Saturn's rings are composed mostly of
Pieces of rock and ice
What causes the planets and moons in our solar system to orbit the Sun?
What is the name of the blue planet with the Great Dark spot?
hydrogen, helium and methane
Gas giants are composed mostly of
the sun, Moon, and Earth are in a straight line.
This causes the highest tide when
is closer to Earth than the Sun
The height of tides in the oceans is affected more by the Moon than the Sun. This is because the Moon
Gravity causes tides
Tides are caused by
Moon and Sun
Tides are periodic variations in the surface height of the ocean, caused by gravitational interactions of the ______ and ______ with the Earth's oceans.
motions of the Earth, Moon and Sun
What determines when high and low tides occur
the Earth rotates on its axis
The main reason that tides rise and fall at any given location each day is:
How are the Sun, Earth, and Moon aligned during a lunar eclipse?
What is the darkest portion of the Moon's shadow during an eclipse called?
A lunar Eclipse
When the Moon passes through the Earth's shadow, what has occurred?
A solar eclipse
What kind of eclipse occurs when our Moon blocks sunlight from reaching Earth?
What is the astronomical event that occurs when one celestial object moves into the shadow of another?
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
APES: Earth Systems
Earth's Surface Benchmark 4th Nine-weeks
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
AP STAT FINAL STUDY GUIDE
8th grade Social Studies Final- Mrs. McDavid
1st 10 elements ⚗️
Science By: Kelsey