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Mel and her doctor are trying to decide which medication Mel should use to reducer her psychotic symptoms. Her doctor told her that the first-generation dopamine-blocking drugs can have side effects such as:

twitches and tremors

The ______________ indicates that, although we often cannot directly control all of our feelings, we can influence our feelings by changing our behavior.

attitudes-follow-behavior principle

He proposed cognitive dissonance theory.


At her health club, Bonnie pedals an exercise bike much faster when other patrons are using nearby equipment. This best illustrates:

social facilitation

In a study on social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students pulled hardest when they thought:

no others were pulling with them

Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system

biomedical therapy

The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior


Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder

antipsychotic drugs

Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation

antianxiety drugs

Drugs used to treat depression;also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters

antidepressant drugs

A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient therapy

electroconvulsive (ECT)

The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity

repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior


A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain


The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

social psychology

The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition

attribution theory

The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition

fundamental attribution error

Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events


Attitude-change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

central route persuasion

Attitude-change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness

peripheral route persuasion

The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

foot-in-the-door phenomenon

A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave


The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. Four example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes

cognitive dissonance theory

The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

social psychology

Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard


Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

normative social influence

Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality

informational social influence

Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others

social facilitation

The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

social loafing

The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity


The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group

group polarization

The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives


The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

social psychology

An unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action


A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people


Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members


The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefor get what they deserve and deserve what they get

just-world phenomenon

"Us" - people with whom we share a common identity


"Them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup


The tendency to favor our own group

ingroup bias

The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

scapegoat theory

The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called cross-race effect and the own-race effect. Emerges 3-9 months of age

other-race effect

Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy


The principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression

frustration-aggression principle

The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

mere exposure effect

An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

passionate love

The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined

companionate love

A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it


Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others


Unselfish regard for the welfare of others


The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if others bystanders are present

bystander effect

The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

social exchange theory

An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

reciprocity norm

An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them


A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas


A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior

social trap

Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive

mirror-image perceptions

Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

superordinate goals

Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions


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