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59 terms

Modules 36, 37, 38, 39

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Mel and her doctor are trying to decide which medication Mel should use to reducer her psychotic symptoms. Her doctor told her that the first-generation dopamine-blocking drugs can have side effects such as:
twitches and tremors
The ______________ indicates that, although we often cannot directly control all of our feelings, we can influence our feelings by changing our behavior.
attitudes-follow-behavior principle
He proposed cognitive dissonance theory.
Festinger
At her health club, Bonnie pedals an exercise bike much faster when other patrons are using nearby equipment. This best illustrates:
social facilitation
In a study on social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students pulled hardest when they thought:
no others were pulling with them
Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
biomedical therapy
The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
psychopharmacology
Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
antipsychotic drugs
Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
antianxiety drugs
Drugs used to treat depression;also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
antidepressant drugs
A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient therapy
electroconvulsive (ECT)
The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
psychosurgery
A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
lobotomy
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
social psychology
The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
attribution theory
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
fundamental attribution error
Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
attitude
Attitude-change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
central route persuasion
Attitude-change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
peripheral route persuasion
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
role
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. Four example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
cognitive dissonance theory
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
social psychology
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
conformity
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
normative social influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept other's opinions about reality
informational social influence
Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
social facilitation
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
social loafing
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
deindividuation
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
group polarization
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
groupthink
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
social psychology
An unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
prejudice
A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
stereotype
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
discrimination
The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefor get what they deserve and deserve what they get
just-world phenomenon
"Us" - people with whom we share a common identity
ingroup
"Them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
outgroup
The tendency to favor our own group
ingroup bias
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
scapegoat theory
The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called cross-race effect and the own-race effect. Emerges 3-9 months of age
other-race effect
Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
aggression
The principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression
frustration-aggression principle
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
mere exposure effect
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
passionate love
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
companionate love
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
equity
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
self-disclosure
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others
altruism
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if others bystanders are present
bystander effect
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
social exchange theory
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
reciprocity norm
An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
social-responsibility
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
conflict
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
social trap
Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
mirror-image perceptions
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
superordinate goals
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction- a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
GRIT