Upgrade to remove ads
End of Semester (Post quiz 3)
Terms in this set (42)
-idea of writing under a false name
-rest of letters we read practice pseudonymity
-30% of scholars today argue that Paul wrote all the letters, others believe he didn't
-Paul's attitudes towards law change as he grows older--> more and more bad things to say about Jews and laws
-departs from Pedagagos--> if you hold onto law you may be doing yourself harm
2 Thes 2:1-12 vs. 1 Thess 4:13-5:5
-doesnt let anyone deceive you or scare you, the Lord is here
-Satan is deceptive
God will condemn the unrighteous
-beware of false prophet
-1 Thess: dont morn over the dead, Jesus died and rose, God will bring the dead to Jesus. The day of the Lord will come suddenly and expectedly
-similarities: both discussing the return of God, deal with question of eschatology.
-differences: 2 Thess: lord already here, more dark/gloomy, "Lord Jesus", the lawless one/antichrist
1 Thess: Lord will come, "Lord" or "Jesus"
-Most scholars agree Paul didn't write it.
"Let no one deceive you in any way; for that day will not come unless the rebellion comes first and the lawless one[a] is revealed, the one destined for destruction.[b] 4 He opposes and exalts himself above every so-called god or object of worship, so that he takes his seat in the temple of God, declaring himself to be God. 5 Do you not remember that I told you these things when I was still with you? 6 And you know what is now restraining him, so that he may be revealed when his time comes. 7 For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work, but only until the one who now restrains it is removed. 8 And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus[c] will destroy[d] with the breath of his mouth, annihilating him by the manifestation of his coming. 9 The coming of the lawless one is apparent in the working of Satan, who uses all power, signs, lying wonders, 10 and every kind of wicked deception for those who are perishing, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. 11 For this reason God sends them a powerful delusion, leading them to believe what is false, 12 so that all who have not believed the truth but took pleasure in unrighteousness will be condemned."
-2 Thes 2:3-12
-suffering has value
-2 focuses on suffering, splits it from 1
Eph 2:1-10 vs. Rom 5:1-11
-Ephesians: less suffering of Christ, more poetic and verbose, more positive- focuses on God's grace. Highest Christology: power of God, Christ and God on the same level, the higher the christology the later the text was written
-Romans: productive suffering, future events. Romans assess humans as enemies
-circular rather than occasional letter
-written to Gentile Christians
-Division of Letter: Theological teachings, ethical requirements
-purpose: Gentile inclusion into God's kingdom
Eph 2:14-22 vs Gal 3:19-29
Eph: where law is in relation to faith- law not necessary
Gal: Law supplemental to scripture, scripture building off law, pedagagos
-Paul didn't write either: different word choice and style
-expansion of the idea of church: not just local assembly of people, now is global institution
Eph 5:21-6:9 vs Col 3:18-4:1
-Col seems to condense/summarize main point of Eph (Haustafeln--> household codes)
-spouses, parent to child, master to slave
-reframe familiar relationships in context with Christ
"21 Be subject to one another out of reverence for Christ.
22 Wives, be subject to your husbands as you are to the Lord. 23 For the husband is the head of the wife just as Christ is the head of the church, the body of which he is the Savior. 24 Just as the church is subject to Christ, so also wives ought to be, in everything, to their husbands.
25 Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her, 26 in order to make her holy by cleansing her with the washing of water by the word, 27 so as to present the church to himself in splendor, without a spot or wrinkle or anything of the kind—yes, so that she may be holy and without blemish. 28 In the same way, husbands should love their wives as they do their own bodies. He who loves his wife loves himself. 29 For no one ever hates his own body, but he nourishes and tenderly cares for it, just as Christ does for the church, 30 because we are members of his body.[a] 31 "For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and the two will become one flesh." 32 This is a great mystery, and I am applying it to Christ and the church. 33 Each of you, however, should love his wife as himself, and a wife should respect her husband."
-husband has greater responsibility in God's eyes
-in these relationships, husband, parents, masters, always have greater responsibility
-separate doesn't equal unequal
Hierarchy vs. Egalitarian
-if you have a hierarchy, you can't have equality
-for biblical word, hierarchy was essential for equality
-Paul did not found this church (outsider to community)
-like husband is to wife, Christ is to the church. Man has to do for the wife what Christ did for the church
-Christ doesn't abuse/dominate the church
-hate=disloyalty and harm
-avoid bodily desires to enjoy spiritual life
Col 1 vs Phil 2
- Col: describes Jesus as invisible God, we are reconciled to God through Jesus
-Phil: relates to Jesus to ppl, more humble Jesus
-Phil is Paul, Col is not
"15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation; 16 for in[a] him all things in heaven and on earth were created, things visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or powers—all things have been created through him and for him. 17 He himself is before all things, and in[b] him all things hold together. 18 He is the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that he might come to have first place in everything. 19 For in him all the fullness of God was pleased to dwell, 20 and through him God was pleased to reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in heaven, by making peace through the blood of his cross."
-High Christology and ecclesiology
-Church as cosmic entity
-Christ as God
-Christ as reconciler
"16 Therefore do not let anyone condemn you in matters of food and drink or of observing festivals, new moons, or sabbaths. 17 These are only a shadow of what is to come, but the substance belongs to Christ. 18 Do not let anyone disqualify you, insisting on self-abasement and worship of angels, dwelling[a] on visions,[b] puffed up without cause by a human way of thinking,[c] 19 and not holding fast to the head, from whom the whole body, nourished and held together by its ligaments and sinews, grows with a growth that is from God.
Warnings against False Teachers
20 If with Christ you died to the elemental spirits of the universe,[d] why do you live as if you still belonged to the world? Why do you submit to regulations, 21 "Do not handle, Do not taste, Do not touch"? 22 All these regulations refer to things that perish with use; they are simply human commands and teachings. 23 These have indeed an appearance of wisdom in promoting self-imposed piety, humility, and severe treatment of the body, but they are of no value in checking self-indulgence."
-False Piety and Torah Abolishment
-lists different aspects of Judaism and says they're no good--> only human things
-very different from Romans about Jews
-calls law human thing and shadow
Romans II vs Col
-Romans: Agonizing over place of Christians, Jewish community's covenant with God is irrevocable
-Jews have distinct place
-Foundation of Vatican II - God's covenant is irrevocable
"11 Now if perfection had been attainable through the levitical priesthood—for the people received the law under this priesthood—what further need would there have been to speak of another priest arising according to the order of Melchizedek, rather than one according to the order of Aaron? 12 For when there is a change in the priesthood, there is necessarily a change in the law as well. 13 Now the one of whom these things are spoken belonged to another tribe, from which no one has ever served at the altar. 14 For it is evident that our Lord was descended from Judah, and in connection with that tribe Moses said nothing about priests.
15 It is even more obvious when another priest arises, resembling Melchizedek, 16 one who has become a priest, not through a legal requirement concerning physical descent, but through the power of an indestructible life. 17 For it is attested of him,
"You are a priest forever,
according to the order of Melchizedek."
18 There is, on the one hand, the abrogation of an earlier commandment because it was weak and ineffectual 19 (for the law made nothing perfect); there is, on the other hand, the introduction of a better hope, through which we approach God.
20 This was confirmed with an oath; for others who became priests took their office without an oath"
-not a letter, probably homily/sermon
-not written to Hebrews, but to Gentiles
-end of 1st century BC
-idea that as a result of the advent of Jesus Christ and his death and resurrection, the entirety of the covenant with Jews is no longer valid- Jewish covenant is old and bad, Christian covenant is new and good
-Roman Catholics reject supersessionism because of Romans II- two valid covenants
-Highest Christology thus far--> introduces idea of Christ as high priest
Faith- reliance upon the certainty of something
-God is faithful to his promises
-Jesus as high priest--> highest Christology
-if you trust in God's promises, that is what faith entails
-significance of God shedding blood and the blood trying to save us
1 Long ago God spoke to our ancestors in many and various ways by the prophets, 2 but in these last days he has spoken to us by a Son,[a] whom he appointed heir of all things, through whom he also created the worlds. 3 He is the reflection of God's glory and the exact imprint of God's very being, and he sustains[b] all things by his powerful word. When he had made purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high, 4 having become as much superior to angels as the name he has inherited is more excellent than theirs.
-high Christology and superiority to angels
-writer acknowledges God was active in history through prophets (not the law)
-law not mentioned because making point that God abolishes the law
-v.2- last days embodied by Jesus Christ
-if you want to know who God is and God's essence, just look at Jesus
"11 But when Christ came as a high priest of the good things that have come,[a] then through the greater and perfect[b] tent[c] (not made with hands, that is, not of this creation), 12 he entered once for all into the Holy Place, not with the blood of goats and calves, but with his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption. 13 For if the blood of goats and bulls, with the sprinkling of the ashes of a heifer, sanctifies those who have been defiled so that their flesh is purified, 14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit[d] offered himself without blemish to God, purify our[e] conscience from dead works to worship the living God!
15 For this reason he is the mediator of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance, because a death has occurred that redeems them from the transgressions under the first covenant."
-For this writer, the sacrificial system was invalid because it could not accomplish what it was intended to do
-atonement--> Christ as the perfect sacrifice plays the price for human's sins and imperfect sacrifice
-how faith is defined in context of Hebrews
-assurance of things hoped for
-faith becomes the means by which we are accepted by God
-If the law doesn't matter, than what does? FAITH
-Suffering and exhaltation
-example of pseudepigrapha
-attributed to Peter, but dates to 90CE which is beyond when Peter died
-Silvanus (potential scribe), maybe author
-If our suffering mirrors that of Christ's, it merits God's reward
-the study of salvation
-most relevant part of Soteriology is ecclesiology
"Come to him, a living stone, though rejected by mortals yet chosen and precious in God's sight, and 5 like living stones, let yourselves be built[a] into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. 6 For it stands in scripture:
"See, I am laying in Zion a stone,
a cornerstone chosen and precious;
and whoever believes in him[b] will not be put to shame."
7 To you then who believe, he is precious; but for those who do not believe,
"The stone that the builders rejected
has become the very head of the corner,"
"A stone that makes them stumble,
and a rock that makes them fall."
They stumble because they disobey the word, as they were destined to do.
9 But you are a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God's own people,[c] in order that you may proclaim the mighty acts of him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light.
10 Once you were not a people,
but now you are God's people;
once you had not received mercy,
but now you have received mercy."
-1 Peter 2:4-10
-idea is that the church is a building fashioned/formed out of human lives (dead sea scrolls)
-the concept of a religious building composed as a community of followers
-all imagery once assigned to Israel now gets assigned to new Christian community
"18 Slaves, accept the authority of your masters with all deference, not only those who are kind and gentle but also those who are harsh. 19 For it is a credit to you if, being aware of God, you endure pain while suffering unjustly. 20 If you endure when you are beaten for doing wrong, what credit is that? But if you endure when you do right and suffer for it, you have God's approval. 21 For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leaving you an example, so that you should follow in his steps.
22 "He committed no sin,
and no deceit was found in his mouth."
23 When he was abused, he did not return abuse; when he suffered, he did not threaten; but he entrusted himself to the one who judges justly. 24 He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross,[a] so that, free from sins, we might live for righteousness; by his wounds[b] you have been healed. 25 For you were going astray like sheep, but now you have returned to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.
Wives and Husbands
3 Wives, in the same way, accept the authority of your husbands, so that, even if some of them do not obey the word, they may be won over without a word by their wives' conduct, 2 when they see the purity and reverence of your lives. 3 Do not adorn yourselves outwardly by braiding your hair, and by wearing gold ornaments or fine clothing; 4 rather, let your adornment be the inner self with the lasting beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit, which is very precious in God's sight. 5 It was in this way long ago that the holy women who hoped in God used to adorn themselves by accepting the authority of their husbands. 6 Thus Sarah obeyed Abraham and called him lord. You have become her daughters as long as you do what is good and never let fears alarm you.
7 Husbands, in the same way, show consideration for your wives in your life together, paying honor to the woman as the weaker sex,[c] since they too are also heirs of the gracious gift of life—so that nothing may hinder your prayers."
-1 peter 2:18-3:7
-Petrine Haustafeln (Peter's household code)
-Longest set of instruction for wives: tells wives don't waste time on physical appearance
-addresses what happens when a woman is married and wife accepts christ and husband has not, woman has power to save her husband by her conduct
-some ppl date it to 150 CE
-similarities to book of Jude, fear of false teachers
-Explosion of Christian sects, first canon of New Testament is proposed
-if you have false teachers who are active, they will destroy the church
-another example of pseudepigraphy
For they speak bombastic nonsense, and with licentious desires of the flesh they entice people who have just[a] escaped from those who live in error. 19 They promise them freedom, but they themselves are slaves of corruption; for people are slaves to whatever masters them. 20 For if, after they have escaped the defilements of the world through the knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, they are again entangled in them and overpowered, the last state has become worse for them than the first. 21 For it would have been better for them never to have known the way of righteousness than, after knowing it, to turn back from the holy commandment that was passed on to them. 22 It has happened to them according to the true proverb,
"The dog turns back to its own vomit,"
"The sow is washed only to wallow in the mud."
-2 Peter 2:18-22
"Therefore, beloved, while you are waiting for these things, strive to be found by him at peace, without spot or blemish; 15 and regard the patience of our Lord as salvation. So also our beloved brother Paul wrote to you according to the wisdom given him, 16 speaking of this as he does in all his letters. There are some things in them hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other scriptures. 17 You therefore, beloved, since you are forewarned, beware that you are not carried away with the error of the lawless and lose your own stability. 18 But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen.
-2 Peter 3:14-18
-What is "scripture" for 1st century followers of Jesus?
-v. 16 is why we have the New Testament. Peter saying Paul's letters aren't like the other scriptures--> saying just as valid as Mt. Sinai etc.
-Church decides these texts are sacred
-Labeled as epistle but does not follow sacred form
-Continues emphasis on dualistic "light" vs "darkness"
"Children, it is the last hour! As you have heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come. From this we know that it is the last hour. 19 They went out from us, but they did not belong to us; for if they had belonged to us, they would have remained with us. But by going out they made it plain that none of them belongs to us. 20 But you have been anointed by the Holy One, and all of you have knowledge.[a] 21 I write to you, not because you do not know the truth, but because you know it, and you know that no lie comes from the truth. 22 Who is the liar but the one who denies that Jesus is the Christ?[b] This is the antichrist, the one who denies the Father and the Son. 23 No one who denies the Son has the Father; everyone who confesses the Son has the Father also. 24 Let what you heard from the beginning abide in you. If what you heard from the beginning abides in you, then you will abide in the Son and in the Father. 25 And this is what he has promised us,[c] eternal life.
26 I write these things to you concerning those who would deceive you. 27 As for you, the anointing that you received from him abides in you, and so you do not need anyone to teach you. But as his anointing teaches you about all things, and is true and is not a lie, and just as it has taught you, abide in him.
-1 John 2:18-27
-john telling you who/what the anti-christ is. Not just one singular individual
-antichrist is a sign of the end of time
-v.22-23: Antichrist is the one who denies the father and the son
-represents disloyal members of his community
-meaning of anti--> 1. to be opposed to, 2. to substitute or replace
- basic idea that Jesus didn't physically appear, suffer, and rose from the dead
"Beloved, let us love one another, because love is from God; everyone who loves is born of God and knows God. 8 Whoever does not love does not know God, for God is love. 9 God's love was revealed among us in this way: God sent his only Son into the world so that we might live through him. 10 In this is love, not that we loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the atoning sacrifice for our sins. 11 Beloved, since God loved us so much, we also ought to love one another. 12 No one has ever seen God; if we love one another, God lives in us, and his love is perfected in us.
13 By this we know that we abide in him and he in us, because he has given us of his Spirit. 14 And we have seen and do testify that the Father has sent his Son as the Savior of the world. 15 God abides in those who confess that Jesus is the Son of God, and they abide in God. 16 So we have known and believe the love that God has for us.
God is love, and those who abide in love abide in God, and God abides in them. 17 Love has been perfected among us in this: that we may have boldness on the day of judgment, because as he is, so are we in this world. 18 There is no fear in love, but perfect love casts out fear; for fear has to do with punishment, and whoever fears has not reached perfection in love. 19 We love[a] because he first loved us. 20 Those who say, "I love God," and hate their brothers or sisters,[b] are liars; for those who do not love a brother or sister[c] whom they have seen, cannot love God whom they have not seen. 21 The commandment we have from him is this: those who love God must love their brothers and sisters[d] also."
-1 John 4:7-21
-love of God and love of brothers and sisters
-human love is response to and outgrowth of God's love (4:10 and 4:19)
-for writers of John, human beings do not have the capacity to love
-rather we love only as a consequence of God loving us
-What separates God's love from human's is that he loves all people, even bad people
-famous apocalyptic ("Revelation") text of early Christian tradition
-God is both working in history and moving history towards desirable
-end is about to happen
-Divisions of revelation: vision of christ (Rev 1), state of seven churches (Rev 2-3) End of History (Rev 4-22)
-Rev 5-20; destruction of "Babylon" and evil
-Book of revelations creates an inclusio for the entire bible
"Then I turned to see whose voice it was that spoke to me, and on turning I saw seven golden lampstands, 13 and in the midst of the lampstands I saw one like the Son of Man, clothed with a long robe and with a golden sash across his chest. 14 His head and his hair were white as white wool, white as snow; his eyes were like a flame of fire, 15 his feet were like burnished bronze, refined as in a furnace, and his voice was like the sound of many waters. 16 In his right hand he held seven stars, and from his mouth came a sharp, two-edged sword, and his face was like the sun shining with full force"
-Vision of Christ (Rev 1:12-16)
-afterlife of Daniel in Book of Rev parallels
-picked up by many movements in 50s and 60s by African Americans
"And war broke out in heaven; Michael and his angels fought against the dragon. The dragon and his angels fought back, 8 but they were defeated, and there was no longer any place for them in heaven. 9 The great dragon was thrown down, that ancient serpent, who is called the Devil and Satan, the deceiver of the whole world—he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him."
-Rev 11-13: The Great Beasts
-Michael's war and Satan as the serpent
-reintroduced to Michael--> leader of God's army. God= Lord of Hosts
-explains interpretation of how the serpent is Satan
And the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night forever and ever.
11 Then I saw a great white throne and the one who sat on it; the earth and the heaven fled from his presence, and no place was found for them. 12 And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Also another book was opened, the book of life. And the dead were judged according to their works, as recorded in the books. 13 And the sea gave up the dead that were in it, Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and all were judged according to what they had done. 14 Then Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire; 15 and anyone whose name was not found written in the book of life was thrown into the lake of fire.
-destruction of Satan and all opposed to God
-second round of judgement
-if you are in hell, you are rejudged based on your actions in hell (everyone gets two bites out of the apple?)
-Final destruction paves the way for the culmination of human history
-Relates to Ghena, 2nd death in revelation, paves way for God to do his final act in creation
Rev 21 and 22
-writer imagines God creating new Heaven and new Earth
-we are solely on Earth and God is solely in Heaven
-Heaven isn't humans final resting place, but a layover before they go to new Earth
2 I saw no temple in the city, for its temple is the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb. 23 And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine on it, for the glory of God is its light, and its lamp is the Lamb. 24 The nations will walk by its light, and the kings of the earth will bring their glory into it. 25 Its gates will never be shut by day—and there will be no night there. 26 People will bring into it the glory and the honor of the nations. 27 But nothing unclean will enter it, nor anyone who practices abomination or falsehood, but only those who are written in the Lamb's book of life.
The River of Life
22 Then the angel[a] showed me the river of the water of life, bright as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb 2 through the middle of the street of the city. On either side of the river is the tree of life[b] with its twelve kinds of fruit, producing its fruit each month; and the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations. 3 Nothing accursed will be found there any more. But the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servants[c] will worship him; 4 they will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads. 5 And there will be no more night; they need no light of lamp or sun, for the Lord God will be their light, and they will reign forever and ever."
-Ends with perfect existence in Jerusalem
-v. 24--> inclusive vision of who is here (who gets access to God and his covenant)--> answer is "all of the nations"
-v. 25--> gates will always be open
-only ppl left on Earth are the ppl whose names are in the book of life
-the only ones left are those who only do good
-tree of life: also in Gen, new description of Garden of Eden
-humans can see God face to face--> distance that exists between us and God is gone. Defining trait of life on new Earth.
-bible itself is an inclusio, book ends the way it begins
-Genesis begins with God creating the perfect heaven and Earth with no sin
-God creates perfect new heaven and earth with no sin or drama
You might also like...
Christian Beliefs Mid-Term
BSF Attributes of God
Bible Bee Memory Verses 2013 King James Version
Other sets by this creator
Comp and management final
Computers and management midterm