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amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius


first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid

cellular respiration

process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen


electron carrier involved in glycolysis


process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen


process that does not require oxygen


process that requires oxygen

Krebs cycle

second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions

electron transport chain

a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP

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