APWH 31: Societies at Crossroads

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Dowager Empress Cixi
Ruler who held power of Qing China from 1862-1908. She was for traditional values with some limited reforms such as the self-strengthening movement. He primary interest was in maintaining her power.
Opium Wars
Conflicts over the British practice of importing opium into China. Britain won, allowing them to force China to accept the "Unequal Treaties."
Unequal Treaties
Treaties between Britain and China (later China and other powers) that gave Britain significant control within Chinese trade.
Taiping Rebellion
Peasant-led anti-foreign rebellion in mid-19th century China demanding equality and shared property. Destroyed by Empress Cixi.
Boxer Rebellion
Anti-foreign Chinese rebellion in the year 1900. Involved the murder of thousands of foreigners before being brutally suppressed by foreign troops.
Commodore Matthew Perry
American admiral who forced Japan to sign a trading agreement with the U.S. through threat of arms.
Meiji Restoration/Meiji Reformation
When the Tokugawa Shogunate ended, restoring Japan to rule by the emperor, who subsequently worked to industrialize and westernize Japan.
Diet of Japan
Japan's legislative body following the Meiji Reformation. Was incredibly weak compared to the emperor himself.
Witte Industrialization Program
1892 - Russian attempt to modernize and industrialize Russia to make the country more competitive with other nations.
anarchy
The belief that true freedom can only be achieved by the elimination of all governments.
Russo-Japanese War
1905 war between Russia and Japan where Russia suffered a humiliating defeat and Japan established itself as a world power.
soviets
A Russian council composed of representatives from the workers and soldiers.
Duma
The Russian parliament, established after the 1905 rebellion.
Muhammad Ali (Egypt)
Leader of Egypt who established Egyptian independence from the Ottoman Empire.
Mahmud II
Ottoman Sultan who was best known for being a reformer. Attempted to solidify the Ottoman state by imposing European-style policies.
Young Turks
Exiled Ottomans who established a group that worked for the secularization and modernization of the Ottoman Empire.