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42 terms

Endocrine System Review

A review of the key endocrine terms from Chapter 13;Biology 621.
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endocrine system
a collection of glands and groups of cells thats secrete hormones that regulate growth,development, and homeostsis
hormones
chemical "messengers" of the endocrine system that are released into the blood
protein hormones
class of hormones that cannot pass through the cell membrane; less likely to be stored in the body
steroid hormone
class of hormones that can pass through the cell membrane; can be stored in the body
prostaglandins
local hormones that do not enter the bloodstream
positive feedback
Process that amplifies a small change (Reinforce change)
negative feedback
a response that opposes the original stimulus
one messenger model
mechanism of hormone action used by steroid hormones which bring their message directly into the cell
two messenger model
mechanism of hormone action used by protein hormones; attach to cell membrane receptors which activate enzymes in the cell to produce the desired effect
hypersecretion
excessive hormone production by an endocrine gland
hyposecretion
deficient hormone production by an endocrine gland
pituitary gland
the master gland of the endocrine system
growth hormone
hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland that stimulates growth of bones
luteinizing hormone
A protein hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that stimulates ovulation in females and androgen production in males.
Prolactin
Peptide hormone released by anterior pituitary which promotes lactation.
follicle stimulating hormone
secreted in increasing amounts during puberty, by the anterior pituitary gland, to stimulate development of reproductive cell follicles
adrenocorticotropic hormone
A peptide hormone released from the anterior pituitary, it stimulates the production and secretion of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex.
oxytocin
A hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released from the posterior pituitary. It induces contractions of the uterine muscles during labor.
antidiuretic hormone
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland which aids in water reabsorption by the kidney
hypothalamus
part of the brain which links the endocine and nervous system, and controls the pituitary gland.
acromegaly
Hypersecretion of the GH in adults which causes an overgrowth of bones in the hands, feet, and face
thyroid gland
gland found in neck that regulates rate of metabolism; produces thyroxine
calcitonin
Produced by the thyroid gland and decreases the blood calcium levels by stimulating calcium deposit in the bones. The antagonist of the parathyroid hormone.
parahormone
secreted by parathyroid glands and controls calcium and phosphate metabolism
tetany
condition affecting nerves causing muscle spasms as a result of low amounts of calcium in the blood caused by a deficiency of the parathyroid hormone
osteoporosis
a condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily; may be caused by hypersecretion of parahormone
adrenal gland
one of a pair of ductless glands, located above the kidneys, consisting of a cortex, which produces steroidal hormones, and a medulla, which produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
cortex
outer part of kidney which produces corticosteroids; helps body deal with longtern stress
medulla
inner part of kidney which produces epineprine and norepinephrine
cortisol
secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress by regulating glucose, carbohydrates, and fat levels
aldosterone
a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, regulates mineral balance in blood and controls fluid volumes
Cushing syndrome
excessive production of cortisol by adrenal cortex with symptoms of abnormal fat deposits and wasting away of muscle
pancreas
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
insulin
a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans of the pancreas responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose
glucagon
hormone secreted by alpha cells of the pancreas; raises blood glucose levels
diabetes
a condition in which the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body's cells cannot use it properly, characterized by excessive thirst, weight loss/gain, frequent urination.
estrogen
a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
progesterone
A hormone produced by the ovaries which acts with estrogen to bring about the menstral cycle.
testosterone
The male sex hormone produced by the testes which promotes the maturation of the reproductive system accessory structures, and development of the male secondary sex characteristics.
pineal gland
A small mass of tissue near the center of the brain; it secretes the hormone melatonin.
melatonin
Hormone secreted by the pineal gland, used to regulate sleep patterns.
Thymus gland
Gland located near the heart; it aids in the body's defence against infection by making antibodies