187 terms

Veterinary terminology

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Abdominocentesis
the insertion of a needle into the abdominal cavity to obtain a sample of fluid
Ablation
the removal of unwanted tissue surgically (ie. Scrotal ablation)
ACTH
adrenocorticotropic hormone; used to test for hypo and hyperadrenocorticism
Addison's Disease
hypoadrenocorticism; decreased cortisol production of adrenal glands; presents with abnormal electrolyte values and often a lack of a stress leukogram.
Agglutination
clumping together
Alimentary
pertaining to food or the digestive tract
Alopecia
hair loss or baldness
Analgesia
absence of sensibility to pain, particularly the relief of pain without loss of consciousness; absence of pain or noxious stimulation
Anaphylaxis
life-threatening allergic reaction to something injected or ingested
Anemia
the number of red blood cells is lower than normal
Anisocoria
a condition in which the pupils of both eyes are not equal sizes
Anuria
complete failure of both kidneys resulting in no production of urine
Arrhythmia
a variation from a normal heart rhythm
Ataxia
lack of muscle coordination causing an abnormal gait; may be due to weakness, neurologic conditions, or orthopedic conditions
Auscultate
to listen with a stethoscope for sounds produced in the body
Axilla
Armpit
Azotemia
the increase of nitrogen waste products in the blood resulting from kidney malfunction. 3/4 of kidney function must be lost in order to obtain azotemic values on bloodwork
Bacteriocidal
agent that kills bacteria
Bacteriostatic
an agent that stops the reproduction of bacteria but does not kill bacteria
Bile Acids
a blood test used to check liver function; bile acids help with the digestion and absorption of fats
Blepharospasm
spasm of the eyelid often correlate with eye pain
Borborygmus
the sound of gas moving through the intestines
Bradycardia
abnormal slowing of heart rate
BUN
blood urea nitrogen; blood test that estimated kidney function
Cachexia
extreme weight loss
Carpus
the wrist (foreleg) in cats or dogs
Cataract
a cloudiness of the lens of the eye, reducing vision and causing a pearly appearance to the eye
Caudal
toward the tail region
Cerebrum
largest portion of the brain that controls cognitive function
Cerebellum
part of the brain located on the brain stem that controls coordination
Cholecystitis
inflammation of the gall bladder
CNS
central nervous system compromised of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves associated with
CT Scan
omputerized tomography scan; takes xray slices through body
Congenital
characteristic of an animal present at birth
Coprophagia
eating dung or feces; assumed normal in most animals but could indicate a nutrient deficiency
Cryptorchid
male with at least one undescended testicle
Cyanosis
bluish or grayish coloring to the skin or gums indicating insufficient oxygen and respiratory distress
Cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder
Cystocentesis
obtaining of urine by inserting a sterile syringe and needle into the bladder
DM
diabetes mellitus; caused by the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin
DKA
diabetic ketoacidosis; a condition resulting from severe insulin deficiency in which a patient is losing glucose and ketones into the urine and blood. The chemical balance of the body becomes too acidic. This condition can be life-threatening
Diuresis
increase in urine production; often done by giving the patient fluids
Diuretic
agent which increases the secretion of urine ridding the body of excess fluids; used in cases of pleural effusion and ascites; common diuretic meds are Lasix and Spirolonactone
"Dys"
difficult
Dysphagia
difficult swallowing
Dystocia
difficult birth
Dyspnea
trouble breathing; shortness of breath
Dysuria
difficult or painful urination
Dysplasia
abnormal tissue development; often associated with bones in canines
Edema
tissues of the body contain too much body fluid; may cause swelling
Electrolyte
an element when dissolved in water will cause the solution to transmit electricity. They are critically important for life as elements in the blood. Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, and Phosphorus are examples of electrolytes
Emesis
vomiting
Enteritis
inflammation of the intestines
Enterotomy
surgical cutting of intestines
Entropion
inversion or turning inward of eyelid
Enucleation
complete removal of the eyeball from the orbit
Epistaxis
bleeding from the nose
Exophthalmos
abnormal protrusion or bulging of eye
FLUTD
Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease; noted by inappropriate urination outside of the litter box; straining to urinate; blood in the urine
Glaucoma
increased pressure in eyes caused by an accumulation of fluid; painful; can lead to blindness if left untreated
Glucosuria
shedding of glucose into urine
"uria"
pertaining to urine
Hematuria
bloody urine
"Hemo - Hema"
pertaining to blood
Hematemesis
bloody vomit
Hemophilia
- a blood - coagulation disorder that the blood fails to clot normally
Hemorrhagic
bleeding excessively
"megaly"
increased size
Hepatic
pertaining to the liver
Histiocytoma
small wart-like skin growth that will eventually disappear; generally benign
"Hyper"
excessive
"Hypo"
below normal
Hyperkalemia
increased level of potassium in blood
Hypertension
increased blood pressure
Hypotension
decreased blood pressure
Hypothermia
decreased body temperature
Iatrogenic
a condition resulting from the action of someone (doctor, nurse, etc). An example is an allergic reaction to a injection given by a doctor
Icterus
jaundice; a yellowing of the tissues; often caused by abnormal liver function
Idiopathic
of unknown cause
Inherited
a trait passed from one generation to the next in the genes from each parent
Innate
a permanent characteristic that is present because of the genetic makeup of that animal
Insulinoma
insulin-producing tumor of the pancreas; patients are extremely and chronically hypoglycemic.
"Intra"
into
Intramuscular
into the muscle
KCS
keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the technical term for "dry eye". It is caused by inadequate tear production.
Ketonuria
ketones in the urine
Ketoacidosis
a life-threatening condition in which ketones, that result from the breakdown of fat, accumulate in the bloodstream and the pH of the blood increases causing an acidosis.
Latent
dormant stage of illness; potentially infected but not sick from infection
Lichenification
thickening and hardening of skin
Mandible
lower jaw
Maxilla
upper jaw
Masticate
chew
Medial
toward the midline
"Mega"
overly enlarged
Megacolon
-a condition in which the colon enlarges and dilates, which results in feces accumulation (often constipation)
Megaesophagus
overly enlarged esophagus causing buildup of food and saliva; often results in regurgitation and aspiration pneumonia
Melena
black, tarry stool due to the presence of digested blood; this indicates bleeding somewhere within the stomach or duodenum often caused by an ulceration or a mass
"Meta"
going beyond
Metacarpus
the front limb between the carpus and the phalanges (toes)
Metastasis
spread of a tumor from its original location to a remote one by tumor cells carried in the blood
Microfilaria
larval form of parasitic worms (heartworm)
Mydriasis
small pupil size
Myelogram
radiograph of the spinal cord taken after contrasting dye has been injected in the space around the spinal cord; post-procedure patients must be watched for seizure activity
Necropsy
postmortem examination
Neoplasia
abnormal growth and accumulation of cells; may be benign or malignant
NSAID
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory; agents that reduce inflammation
Nystagmus
- constant involuntary movement of the eye; can be side to side or up and down.
Obstipated
intractable constipation
Otic
pertaining to the ear
Oxytocin
hormone that stimulates the contraction of muscles in the reproductive tract
Pacemaker
device that regulates heartbeat by delivering regular shocks to the heart
Panosteitis
inflammation of the bone, especially the long bones in growing dogs
Paresis
slight or incomplete paralysis
Pemphigus
immune-mediated disease that is indicated by scaling and hair loss with occasional heavy crusts
Pica
urge to eat unnatural items such as dirt and rocks
Paraparesis
paralysis in two limbs
Pathogenic
causing disease
Perianal fistula
deep infection around the anus which often results in deep draining tracts; often seen in German Shepherds; treated with cyclosporine
Perineal
the area between the anus and the genital organs
Peritoneum
the membrane lining the wall of the abdominal cavity
Phalanges
toes
Placebo
a substance that is given that has no medical benefit, ie. sugar pill
Plantigrade stance
standing or walking with the hocks almost touching the floor
"plasia"
growth
"Pneumo"
pertaining to breathing, respiration, lungs
Pneumonia
inflammation of the lungs
Pneumothorax
presence of air in pleura cavity
"Poly"
many
Polyphagia
excessive ingestion of food
Polyuria
excessive urination
Post - ictal
the period of time directly after a seizure that the patient may exhibit signs of disorientation, aggression etc.
Prepuce
the sheath of skin that covers the penis
Pruritis
Itching
PSS
portosystemic shunt also known as a liver shunt; abnormal vessel that allows blood to bypass the liver
Pulmonary
relating to or affecting the lungs
"Pyo"
pus
Pyometra
pus accumulation in the uterus, normally caused by a bacterial infection
Pyothorax
pus accumulation in the pleural cavity
Recumbency
lying down
Regurgitation
expelling food from the esophagus
Sepsis
presence of toxins in the blood or other tissues
Somogyi effect
rebound hyperglycemia or insulin-induced hyperglycemia; caused by an overdose of insulin which causes the blood glucose to drop low and then spike high in response
Stenosis
the narrowing of an organ or passage such as an airway or blood vessel
"Sub"
below/beneath
Subcutaneous
beneath the skin
Syncope
the temporary loss of consciousness; fainting
Systemic
throughout the body
"Tachy"
rapid/increased
Tachycardia
abnormally high heart rate
Tachypnea
rapid breathing
Tarsus
the ankle of the rear leg (also known as the hock)
TECA
total ear canal ablation; a surgical method for eliminating chronic ear problems
Tetraparesis
all four-leg paralysis
Thrombocytopenia
a lower than normal number of platelets in the blood; signs include petechiae (small pinpoint hemorrhage) and ecchymosis (large bruise)
Torsion
twisting of an organ
Uveitis
inflammation of the eye
"Vaso"
pertaining to blood vessel
Vasoconstriction
a decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
Vasodilator
agent which dilates or increases the diameter of blood vessels
Ventral Slot
a ventral approach (in the neck) which allows direct access to extruded disc material and is less traumatic and requires less surgical time
Volvulus (ie.GDV)
twisting of stomach or intestine, which often has the effect of cutting the blood supply off to that region
Zoonotic
a disease which can be transmitted between people and animals (ie. Rabies, Leptosporosis, Toxoplasmosis)
Encephalitis
inflammation of the brain due to infection
Ovariohysterectomy
spaying of female
Orchiectomy
removal of testicles
Arthritis
inflammation of the joints
Hydrocephalous
water on the brain
Hypoxia
insufficient oxygen
Enteral
pertaining to the intestines
Prophylaxis
prevention of disease
Erythema
Redness of the skin caused by congestion of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin. it occurs with any skin injury, infection or inflammation
Perineum
The region between the tail and the Ischiatic arch, especially the region between the anus and genital organs made up of the pelvic diaphragm and associated structure occupying the pelvic outlet
Seroma
A collection of serum in the body, producing a tumour-like mass
Fistula
abnormal opening between two organs or between an organ and the body surface
Coagulate
change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state
Histology
the study of the microscopic structure of tissues
Peristalsis
wavelike muscle contractions of the alimentary tract
"-centesis"
surgical puncture to remove fluids
"-tomy"
cutting, incision
"-stomy"
surgical opening
"-emia"
blood condition
"-oma"
tumor
"-penia"
deficiency, lack of
"-cyte"
cell
"pseudo-"
false
"pan-"
all, entire
-"path, -pathy"
disease