clinical mycology

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study of fungi

clinical mycology

study of those fungi important as causes of human infection


infection or disease of fungal etiology (fungal infection)


poisoning due to ingestion (mycophagia) of toxic mushrooms- Amantia species


intoxication due to ingestion of foods, typically grains, contaminated with fungal toxins (mycotoxins) - aflatoxin


most well known toxin

fungal allergy

atopic hypersensitivity due to exposure to fungal antigans (allerign becouse of the spores they produce

somatic forms of fungi

yeast and mold


mold-tubular filament - septate or aseptate and vegetative or aerial


septa in the hypha- crosswalls


lack septa in the hypha- one long continious tube


hypha- within the medium


hypha- above the medium


asexual fungal spore not formed by cleavage- microconidium and macroconidium


generic term for small, single-celled conidium


generic term for large, multi-celled or septate conidium


produced by cleavage and contained within a membrane, such as a sporangium or spherule


large, double-walled resting spore


all yeast produce- conidia that is blown out from the mother cell, either a yeast or hypha (tip of the hypha is the active growing part


unicellular, asexual or sexual, in culture look like bacteria


mulitcellular, filamentous, two types-hypha and mycelium


total mass of hyphae comprising a fungus colony (dark brown/ black) grows in your fridge


produced basipetally as part of a chain by septation and disarticulation of a conidiiogenous hypha


blastic conidium produced basipetally and extruded from a conidiogenous cell (phialide)


(poroconidium) produced through minute pores in the wall of a conidiophore or previously formed conidium


blastic conidium produced basipetally in chains or balls from the tip of a conidiogenous cell (annellide) wherein a scared tip is left between each successive spore

zygomycota sexual spore


zygomycota nonsexual spore

sporangiospore- sac like structure

zygomycota (water fungi)

contaminants and adventitious pathogens characterizied by rapid growth and aseptate hyphae

only group that has aseptate hyphae


asomycota (sac fungi)

contaminants and, advantitious and overt pathogens-advanced forms phylogenetically and largest number of species

asomycota sexual spore


asomycota nonsexual spore


basidiomycota (club fungi)

mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, and smuts; highest forms phyogenetically, no animal pathogens, some species cause mycotismus and mycotoxicosis

basidiomycota sexual spore


basidiomycota nonsexual spore


deuteromycota (fungi imperfecti)

sexual (perfect) mode of reproduction unknown, most animal pathogens in this group

deuteromycota sexual spore


deuteromycota nonsexual spore


deuteromycota form classes

blastomycetes, coelomycetes, and hyphomycetes


deuteromycota class; yeast-like fungi with blastoconidia


deuteromycota class; conidia in pycnidium or acervulus


deuteromycota class; conidia borne on conidiophores or directly on hyphae (moniliaceae and dematiaceae)


hyphae and conidia hyaline


hyphae and conidia dark

J.W. Rippon

identification of fungi is still an exercise in contemplative observation


characteristic of some fungi wherin they exhibit two different somatic forms depending upon environmental conditions temp isthe main factor

dimorphic fungi in vitro

typically exists as a sporadic form in nature (mold or filamentous)

dimorphic fungi in vivo

parasitic form (yeast or non-mold)

fungi are classified based on

sexual sporalation

fungi cell wall contains


fungi growth

over wide pH range, temp range, requires adequate humidity, and indifferent to light

fungi primary mechanish of reproduction

sporulation followed by germination

fungi main function of spore

dissemination (dispersial) not extremely resistant they are problematic b/c they disperse into the air and are inhealed

fungi grow on

dead decaying things

fungi defined

eucaryotic, anerobic or faculative, saprophytic and hetertropic, and are usually filamentous, branched somatic structers with rigid cell wall

most fungal infections are

exogeneous in origin (environment) except tinea versicolor and candidosis

fungal infections that are part of the NF

tinea versicolor and candidosis

KOH wet mount

a rapid method for detection and assessment of fungal elements in clinical specimens

acid fast smear

limited value for ascosspores and Nocardia but not useful for fungi

nonspecific fluorochrome stains

Calcofluor white will bind to the cell wall

GS smear

Actinomyces and Nocordia

primary isolation of fungi

Sabouraud agar-peptone and dextrose (glucose)

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