How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

clinical mycology

STUDY
PLAY
mycology
study of fungi
clinical mycology
study of those fungi important as causes of human infection
mycosis
infection or disease of fungal etiology (fungal infection)
mycetismus
poisoning due to ingestion (mycophagia) of toxic mushrooms- Amantia species
mycotoxicosis
intoxication due to ingestion of foods, typically grains, contaminated with fungal toxins (mycotoxins) - aflatoxin
aflatoxin
most well known toxin
fungal allergy
atopic hypersensitivity due to exposure to fungal antigans (allerign becouse of the spores they produce
somatic forms of fungi
yeast and mold
hypha
mold-tubular filament - septate or aseptate and vegetative or aerial
septate
septa in the hypha- crosswalls
aseptate
lack septa in the hypha- one long continious tube
vegetative
hypha- within the medium
aerial
hypha- above the medium
conidium
asexual fungal spore not formed by cleavage- microconidium and macroconidium
microconidium
generic term for small, single-celled conidium
macroconidium
generic term for large, multi-celled or septate conidium
endospore
produced by cleavage and contained within a membrane, such as a sporangium or spherule
chlamydospore
large, double-walled resting spore
blastoconidium
all yeast produce- conidia that is blown out from the mother cell, either a yeast or hypha (tip of the hypha is the active growing part
yeast
unicellular, asexual or sexual, in culture look like bacteria
mold
mulitcellular, filamentous, two types-hypha and mycelium
mycelium
total mass of hyphae comprising a fungus colony (dark brown/ black) grows in your fridge
arthroconidium
produced basipetally as part of a chain by septation and disarticulation of a conidiiogenous hypha
phialoconidium
blastic conidium produced basipetally and extruded from a conidiogenous cell (phialide)
tretoccoidium
(poroconidium) produced through minute pores in the wall of a conidiophore or previously formed conidium
sympodioconidium
blastic conidium produced basipetally in chains or balls from the tip of a conidiogenous cell (annellide) wherein a scared tip is left between each successive spore
zygomycota sexual spore
zygospore
zygomycota nonsexual spore
sporangiospore- sac like structure
zygomycota (water fungi)
contaminants and adventitious pathogens characterizied by rapid growth and aseptate hyphae
only group that has aseptate hyphae
zygomycota
asomycota (sac fungi)
contaminants and, advantitious and overt pathogens-advanced forms phylogenetically and largest number of species
asomycota sexual spore
asospore
asomycota nonsexual spore
conidia
basidiomycota (club fungi)
mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, and smuts; highest forms phyogenetically, no animal pathogens, some species cause mycotismus and mycotoxicosis
basidiomycota sexual spore
basidiospore
basidiomycota nonsexual spore
conidia
deuteromycota (fungi imperfecti)
sexual (perfect) mode of reproduction unknown, most animal pathogens in this group
deuteromycota sexual spore
absent
deuteromycota nonsexual spore
conidia
deuteromycota form classes
blastomycetes, coelomycetes, and hyphomycetes
blastomycetes
deuteromycota class; yeast-like fungi with blastoconidia
coelomycetes
deuteromycota class; conidia in pycnidium or acervulus
hyphomycetes
deuteromycota class; conidia borne on conidiophores or directly on hyphae (moniliaceae and dematiaceae)
moniliaceae
hyphae and conidia hyaline
dematiaceae
hyphae and conidia dark
J.W. Rippon
identification of fungi is still an exercise in contemplative observation
dimorphism
characteristic of some fungi wherin they exhibit two different somatic forms depending upon environmental conditions temp isthe main factor
dimorphic fungi in vitro
typically exists as a sporadic form in nature (mold or filamentous)
dimorphic fungi in vivo
parasitic form (yeast or non-mold)
fungi are classified based on
sexual sporalation
fungi cell wall contains
chitin
fungi growth
over wide pH range, temp range, requires adequate humidity, and indifferent to light
fungi primary mechanish of reproduction
sporulation followed by germination
fungi main function of spore
dissemination (dispersial) not extremely resistant they are problematic b/c they disperse into the air and are inhealed
fungi grow on
dead decaying things
fungi defined
eucaryotic, anerobic or faculative, saprophytic and hetertropic, and are usually filamentous, branched somatic structers with rigid cell wall
most fungal infections are
exogeneous in origin (environment) except tinea versicolor and candidosis
fungal infections that are part of the NF
tinea versicolor and candidosis
KOH wet mount
a rapid method for detection and assessment of fungal elements in clinical specimens
acid fast smear
limited value for ascosspores and Nocardia but not useful for fungi
nonspecific fluorochrome stains
Calcofluor white will bind to the cell wall
GS smear
Actinomyces and Nocordia
primary isolation of fungi
Sabouraud agar-peptone and dextrose (glucose)