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chapter 18 permanent waving
the main active ingredient or reducing agent in alkaline perms is
the main active ingredient in acid-balanced waving lotions is
the degree to which hair absorbs the waving lotion is related to its
expand the hair
the action of waving lotion is to
little or no elasticity
if hair breaks under very slight strain, it has:
a method of wrapping a permanent wave that is suitable for very long hair is the
ask ________ that allow you to find out why the client wants the texture service and what results are expected.
hair texture describes the __________ of a single strand of hair and is classified as fine, medium, or coarse.
waves that process more quickly and produce firmer curls than true acid waves are considered to be
the perm that is activated by head created chemically within the product is known as
the polypeptide chains are long chains of amino acids joined together by
a perm activated by an outside heat source, usually a conventional hair hood-type hair dryer is known as:
bonds that are fomed when the sulfur atoms in two adjacent polypeptide chains are joined together are known as
the chemical action of _______ breaks the disulfide bonds and softens the hair
when hair has assumed the desired shape, the broken disulfide bonds must be __________ rebonded.
straight rods are equal in
___________ rods have a small diameter in the center area and gradually increase to their largest diameter at the ends, resulting in a tighter curl at the ends, with a loose, wider curl at the scalp.
what type of hair is more fragile, easier to process, and more susceptible to damage from perm services?
what type of hair requires more processing than medium or fine hair and may also be more resistant to processing?
all perm wraps begin by sectioning the hair into panels which are further divided into subsections called?
base control refers to the position of the tool in relation to its ______ and is determined by the angle at which the hair is wrapped.
the basic perm wrap is also called a ______ wrap.
the _________ wrap creates a movement that curves within the sectioned-out panels.
the _________ wrap uses zigzag partings to divide base areas.
when the strand of hair is wrapped at an angle 45 degree beyond perpendicular to its base section, it will result in:
half-off base placement
when the strand of hair is wrapped at an angle 90 degrees (perpendicular) to its base section, it will result in:
end wraps are absorbent papers used to _________ of the hair when wrapping and winding the hair on the perm tools.
when you place one end wrap on top of the hair strand and hold it flat, it is called the:
book end wrap
when one end paper is folded in half over the hair ends like an envelope, it is called the:
preliminary test curl
what can be used to determine the actual processing time needed to achieve optimum curl results when giving a perm for the first time on a client?
if too many _________ bonds are broken in the perming process, the hair will be too weak to hold a firm curl
underprocessing is caused by ________ processing time of the waving lotion.
5 to 10
in permanent waving, most of the processing takes place as soon as the solution penetrates the hair, within the first _____ minutes.
the length of time required for the hair strands to absorb the waving lotion and for the hair to re-curl is called:
always rinse perm solution from the hair for at least ___ minutes before applying the neutralizer.
some manufacturers recommend the application of a _________ after blotting and before application of the neutralizer.
neutralization rebuilds the _________ by removing the extra hydrogen bonds created by the waving solution.
if the hair is not _____, the hydrogen peroxide in the neutralizer can react with waving lotion and cause the hair color to lighten.
relatively weak physical side bonds that are the result of an attraction between opposite charges are _____ bonds
an ______ liquid protein conditioner can be applied to the hair and dried under a warm dryer for 5 minutes or more prior to neutralization if hair is damaged.
in neutralization, the bonds in the hair are re-formed
chemical bonds that join amino acids together to form polypeptide chains are ______ bonds.
metallic salts leave a coating on the hair that may cause ________, severe discoloration, or hair breakage.
if you suspect metallic salts are present, mix 1 oz of 20-volume peroxide with 20 drops of 28% _________ and immerse at least 20 strands for 30 minutes.
perming only a section of a whole head of hair is called
the _____ wrap is used to prevent noticeable splits and to blend the flow of the hair.
the _____ wrap is done at an angle that causes the hair to spiral along the length of the tool, like the grip on a tennis racket
when performing a procedure for a preliminary test curl, wrap one tool in each different area of the head including the top, the side, and the ________
in order to make smooth transition from the rolled section of the head to an unrolled section, use a larger tool for the last tool next to an unrolled section when giving a _____.
many male clients are looking for added _______, fullness, style, and low maintenance that only a perm can provide.