Art Test 2

STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

Medium
a particular material along with its accompanying technique; a specific type of artistic technique or means of expression determined by the use of particular materials.
Draw
to pull, push or drag a marking tool across a surface to leave a mark. Visual thinking; for recording and developing ideas. Communication thru imagery with ideas, feelings, experiences and imaginings.
Sketchbook
a place to develop and maintain drawing skills and to note whatever catches the eye or the imagination.
Cartoon
A humorous or satirical drawing. A drawing created as a full scale working drawing, used as a model for a fresco painting, mural, or tapestry.
hatching
a technique used in drawing and linear forms of printmaking, in which lines are placed in parallel series to darken the value of an area.
crosshatching
drawing one set of hatchings over another in a different direction so that the lines cross, suggesting shadows or darker areas.
contour hatching
a set of parallel curved lines that suggest volume in space.
charcoal
dry drawing medium made from charred twigs, usually vine or willow.
Conte Crayon
drawing medium developed in the late 18th century. Similar to pencil in its graphite content, it includes clay and small amounts of wax.
pastel
sticks of powdered pigment held together with gum binding agent. pale colors or tints.
tooth
degree of roughness present in drawing papers; the presence of this gives texture to a drawing.
fixative
a light, liquid varnish sprayed over finished charcoal or pastel drawings to prevent smudging.
Chiaroscuro
italian word meaning "light dark". the gradations of light and dark values in 2D imagery. Especially the illusion of rounded, 3D for created through gradations of light and shade rather than line.
liquid media
black and brown inks are most common. washes of ink thinned with water. Felt and fiber tipped pens as well as traditional pen and ink media.
ink
similar to watercolor paintings. Van Gogh uses bamboo pen and ink for vigorous lines in The Fountain in the Hospital Garden
wash
a thin, transparent layer of paint or ink
Comics/Graphic Novels
sequential art form based on drawing
pigment
any coloring agent, made from natural or synthetic substances, used in paints or drawing materials. usually in powdered form.
binder
material used in paint that causes the pigment particles to adhere to one another and to the support.
vehicle
liquid emulsion used as a carrier or spreading agent in paints
support
physical material that provides the base for and sustains a 2D work of art. Paper is the usual support for drawings and prints; canvas or panels are common supports in painting.
Ground
surface onto which paint is applied, consisting of sizing plus primer.
watercolor
paint that uses water-soluble gum as the binder and water as the vehicle. characterized by transparency.
Gouache
opaque, water soluble paint. watercolor to which opaque white has been added.
Tempera
water based paint that uses egg yolk as a binder. many commercial made paints identified as this are actually gouache.
encaustic
a type of painting in which pigment is suspended in a binder of hot wax.
oil paint
turpentine is the vehicle. Hubert and Jan van Eyck developed this which yields jewel like surfaces. Compared to tempera it provides increased opacity or covering power and when thinned greater transparency. slow drying time allows blending of strokes and only this paint has impasto quality.
matte
dull finish or surface, especially in painting, photography, and ceramics
glaze
in oil painting, a thin transparent or translucent layer brushed over a layer of paint allowing the first layer to show through but enriching the color. In ceramics, a vitreous or glassy coating applied to seal and decorate surfaces.
Impasto
thick paint applied to a surface in a heavy manner, having the appearance and consistency of cake frosting.
acrylic
clear synthetic resin used as a binder in paint and as a casting material in sculpture.
airbrush
small scale paint sprayer that uses acrylic paint and allows artist to control a fine mist of paint and create subtle transitions in color.
Buon Fresco
painting technique in which pigments suspended in water are applied to a damp lime-plaster surface. True fresco
Fresco Secco
painting over dried plaster.
print
a multiple original impression made from a plate, stone, wood plock, or screen by an artist or made under the artist's supervision. These are made in editions and each is signed and numbered by the artist.
matrix
the block of metal, wood, stone or other material that an artist works to create a print
edition
total number of prints made and approved by the artist, usually numbered consecutively. Also, a limited number of multiple originals of a single design in any medium.
relief
printing technique in which the parts of the printing surface that carry ink are left raised, white the negative space is the cut away. Woodcuts and linoleum.
Woodcut
type of relief print made from a plank of relatively soft wood.
registration
in color or machine printmaking, the process of aligning the impressions of blocks or plates on the same sheet of paper.
wood engraving
method of relief printing in wood, that in comparison to woodcut, a wood engraving is made with denser wood, cutting into the end of the grain rather than the side. the density of the wood requires engraving tools instead of wood carving tools.
linocut
relief process in which an artist cuts away negative spaces from a block of linoleum, leaving raised areas to take ink for printing.
intaglio
technique in which lines and areas to be inked are recessed below the surface of the printing plate. Etching, engraving, drypoint, and aquatint.
engraving
intaglio process in which grooves are cut into metal or wood with a sharp cutting tool called a burin or graver. also the resulting print.
burin
tool used in engraving
etching
intaglio process in which a metal plate is coated with wax or varnish, then scratched to expose the metal to nitric acid where lines are desired.
drypoint
intaglio process in which lines are scratched directly into a metal plate with a steel needle. scratch raises a ridge that takes the ink.
lithography
planographic printmaking process based on the antipathy of oil and water. the image is drawn with a grease crayon or painted with tusche on a stone or grained aluminum plate and then the surface is treated and dampened so that it will accept ink only where the crayon has been used.
Screenprinting/Silkscreen/Serigraphy
technique in which stencils are applied to fabric stretched across a frame. paint or ink is forced with a squeegee through the unblocked portions of the screen onto the paper or other surface beneath.
Aquatint
Etching process used to obtain gray areas in black and white and color prints.
Camera Obscura
A dark room or box with a small hole in one side, through which an inverted image of the view outside is projected onto the opposite wall, screen, or mirror. The image is then traced.
Daguerreotype
an early photographic process developed by in 1830s which required a treated metal plate. the plate was exposed to light, and the chemical reactions on the plate created the first satisfactory photographs.
Wet plate collodation
developed in the mid 1850s in which a prepared glass plate was exposed for several minutes; although the plate needed to be developed quickly, it could serve as a clear negative from which many photos could be printed.
Logo
Sign, name, or trademark on a institution, a firm, or a publication, consisting of letterforms or pictorial elements. Short for logotype.
Typography
The art and technique of composing printed materials from type.
Typefaces/Fonts
The name given to a style of type. The test of Artforms is printed in the Adobe Garamond font.
Serifs
Short lines that end the upper and lower strokes of a letter in some fonts. The capital I has two serifs in Adobe Garamond; the small m has one.
Sans Serif
without serifs.
Graphic Design
refers to the process of working with words and pictures to enhance visual communication. A creative process employing art and technology to communicate ideas.
Freestanding/ In the Round
any piece or type of sculpture that is meant to be seen from all sides.
Low Relief/Bas Relief
sculpture in relief in which the subjects emerge only slightly from the surface.
High Relief
Sculpture in relief in which more than half of any significant portion of the subject emerges from the background.
Additive process
sculptural form produced by adding, combining, or building up material from a core or armature. Modeling in clay and welding steel.
Modeling
working pliable material such as clay or wax into 3D forms.
Substitution process
making a work of art by casting, as opposed to additive or subtractive processes.
Casting
substitution process that involves pouring liquid material such as molten metal, clay, wax, or plaster into a mold. Liquid hardens and the shape of the mold is left inside.
Mold
cavity created out of plaster, clay, metal or plastic for use in casting.
Lost wax
Casting method in which a model is first made from wax and encased in clay or casting plaster. When the clay is fired to make a mold, the wax melts away, leaving a void that can be filled with molten metal or other liquid to produce a cast.
Subtractive process
sculpture made by removing material from a larger block or form.
Carving
subtractive process in which a sculpture is formed by removing material from a block or mass of wood, stone, or other material.
Constructions
assembled sculpture
Assemblage
sculpture made by assembling found or cast off objects that may or not contribute their original identities to the total content of the work.
Kinetic
art that incorporates movement as part of the design.
Mixed media
works of art made with more than one medium.
Installations
art medium in which the artists arranges objects or artworks in a room, thinking of the entire space as a medium to be manipulated. Can be site specific.
Site Specific
any work made for a certain place, which cannot be separated or exhibited apart from its intended environment.
Ceramics
clay hardened into relatively permanent material by firing, and the art form that includes this procedure.
Kiln
a high temp oven in which pottery or ceramic ware is fired.
Firing
baking clay in a special high temp oven to solidify it
earthenware
type of clay used for ceramics. 1100-1500 Celsius and is porous after firing.
Stoneware
1200-1300 Celsius and is nonporous after firing.
Porcelain
White or grayish and fires at 1350-1500 Celsius; translucent and rings after firing.
Throwing
forming clay objects on a potters wheel
Slab construction
hand building method in which the clay is formed into sheets before being shaped into a form.
Coiling
hand building method in which clay is rolled into long rope-like strands connected to build a form.
Slip
clay that is thinned to the consistency of cream and used as paint on earthenware or stoneware ceramics.
Glaze
Silica based paint for clay that fuses with the clay on firing. Almost any color, or translucent. Makes a glasslike surface on the clay piece.
Warp
Threads that run the lengthwise in a fabric, crossed at right angles by the weft.
weft/woof
horizontal threads interlaced through the warp.
loom
device for producing cloth or fiber art by interweaving fibers at right angles.
Weaving
interlacing of fibers.
Crafts
made from various media of clay, glass, metal, wood, and fiber; and most are 3D. Along the boundary between art and useful objects.
Post and Beam
structural system that uses two or more uprights or posts to support a horizontal beam that spans the space between them.
Colonnade
row of columns usually spanned or connected by beams(lintels).
Barrel Vault
Semicircular arch extended in depth; a continuous series of arches.
Groin Vault
Formed when two barrel vaults intersect.
Arcade
series of arches supported by columns or piers. Also, a covered passageway between two series of arches, or between a series of arches and a wall.
Dome
generally hemispherical roof or vault. Theoretically, an arch rotated 180 degrees on its vertical axis.
Pendentives
curving triangle that points downward; common support for domes in Byzantine architecture.
Flying Buttresses
Gothic cathedral support usually exterior for a wall, arch, or vault that opposes the lateral forces of the structure.
Truss
structural framework of wood or metal based on a triangular system, used to span, reinforce or support walls, ceilings, piers, or beams.
Balloon Frame
Wooden structural support developed in the US in the mid 19th century in which standardized, thin studs are held together with nails.
Dry Masonry
piling stones atop one another to make markers, piles, and cairns. the weight of the stones themselves holds the structure up.
Round Arch
semicircle made from wedge shaped stones fitted together with joints at right angles to the curve.
Pointed Arch
made possible higher ceilings and wider aisles. steeper and sends more weight downward, and then the sideways thrust is countered with buttresses.