65 terms

Ch. 11 AP Human Geography (Industry)

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Nicholas Appert
In 1810, this French Confectioner developed canning which preserved food in glass bottles that had been sterilized by water. Made more practical by Peter Durand's invention of the Tin Can.
iron industry
The first industry to benefit from Watt's steam engine was the ______ __________. This happened because Watt's steam engine vastly increased the scale of production, while Cort's puddling and rolling techniques improved the quality of goods produced in this industry.
Calcium chloride
This substance was added to the boiling water in a large scale canning process. This raised the boiling point of water from 100 degrees Celsius to 116 degrees Celsius and reduced sterilization time from 5 hours to about 40 minutes. Direct result was that the production of canned goods increased tenfold. Demonstrates impact of chemical industry in food processing.
bulk-gaining industry
An industry that makes final products with more weight of volume in the production process. Soft-Drink industry is an example.
Coal
This resource replaced wood as the primary energy source after the industrial revolution as wood was becoming increasingly scarce due to high demand in the ship, building, and furniture sectors. Abraham Darby was able to produce high quality amounts of this using purified carbon from _____ known as coke. Results in the geographic pattern of this industry changing from dispersed to clustered.
1911 Triangle Shirtwaist fire
The deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York. The fire caused the deaths of 146 garment workers, who died from the fire, smoke inhalation, or falling to their deaths. Managers had locked the doors to the stairwells and exits.The fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, which fought for better working conditions for sweatshop workers.
Mohawk Valley
A linear industrial belt in upper New York state along the Hudson and Erie Canal. Buffalo is the regions most important industrial center. Niagara Falls generates massive amounts of energy and also attracts other industrial companies.
Maquiladora
Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico.
textiles
First product of the Industrial Revolution to be mechanized in order to be made, resulting in many inventions such as the Spinning frame and a decrease in the price of cloth.
cottage industry
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Fordist
A highly organized and specialized system for organizing industrial production and labor. Named after automobile producer Henry Ford, ______ production features assembly-line production of standardized components for mass consumption. In other words everyone does one specific job repeatedly.
Henry Cort
In the 1780s, this man developed the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke (made from coal, not the drink or drug)., and also developed heavy-duty steam-powered rolling mills, which were capable of spewing out finished iron in every shape and form.
Richard Arkwright
English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the spinning water frame, a machine that, with minimal human supervision, could spin several threads at once. Was a barber
puddling
A process developed by Henry Cort where coke, derived from coal, was used to burn away impurities in pig iron (crud iron) to make high-quality iron
rolling
A process developed by Henry Cort in which a heated or cold material is passed between rollers, squeezing it into various shapes and thickness. Some applications include rods, bars, sheet, plates, and foils.
Abraham Darby
In 1709, ___ used coal to smelt iron, or separate iron from its ore. When he discovered that coal gave off impurities that damaged the iron, __ found a way to remove the impurities from coal, leading to better quality/ cheaper iron.
The rocket
A steam locomotive invented by Englishman George Stephenson in 1929 which could reach 30 mph.
coke
A purified form of carbon derived from coal and first produced by Abraham Darby of Coalbrookdale.
Transportation
Modern engineering is a consequence of the industrial revolution. It made its biggest impact in _____________.
John Roebuck
The modern chemical industry was a consequence of the industrial revolution. In 1746 _____ _______and Samuel Garbett devised a new way to bleach cotton that did not involve sour milk. This discovery was improved upon by Charles Tennant and allowed the industry to integrate with textile manufacturing. Indirectly it led to modern day food processing.
Crystal Palace
Building erected in Hyde Park, London, for the Great Exhibition of 1851(or 1851 World's Fair). Made of iron and glass, like a gigantic greenhouse, it was a symbol of the industrial age. Burned down.
Peter Durand
In 1839 this British man invented the tin can which made canning more practical in the food processing industry. Actually the can was 98.5% steel but has a thin coating of tin.
political instability
The diffusion of the industrial revolution to the rest of Europe was not significant until the late 1800's. This was largely due to _______ _________ , for example the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, 1848 revolutions. This slowed down the devolpment of modern transportation systems, especially the railway.
1848
Year during which European cities from Rome to Budapest enflamed in revolts, inspired by:
Initial French Revolution; rising nationalism; rising socialism; and poor harvests. By 1850 all revolts failed, but the mass attempt was a sign of unstoppable Enlightenment change!
Napoleonic Wars
A series of wars fought between France (led by Napoleon Bonaparte) and alliances involving England and Prussia and Russia and Austria at different times (1799-1812).
Treaty of Tilsit
1807 Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elbe as well as the Polish provinces.
Samuel Slater
He was a British mechanic who had worked with Richard Arkwright that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories. Factory was in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
1860
The United States became a major industrial nation, 2nd only to the British by _____
75
Approximately ____ percent of all industry is located in 4 regions ____Eastern North America, Northwestern Europe, Eastern Europe, and East Asia.
New England
The oldest industrial area in northeast U.S. is southern ____ _________. Mainly into cotton textiles because of large inexpensive labor force. Ironically today it is now known for expensive labor.
Middle Atlantic
The largest U.S. market is the ________ ________ area, located between Washington D.C and New York City.
Pittsburgh-Lake Erie
This area is the nations most important STEEL producing area. Largely based on its proximity to the Appalachian mountains.
Western Great Lakes
This area includes Chicago(3rd largest U.S city) and uses it as a transfer point among numerous transportation systems. Also includes Detroit, Toledo, and Milwaukee. Also the home to significant automobile manufacturers. Main supplier of machine tools, transportation equipment, food products, and clothing to people living in the INTERIOR of the country.
St. Lawrence Valley-Ontario Peninsula
This is Canada's most important industrial area. Is central to the Canadian. market, close to the Great Lakes, and also has access to Niagara falls. Most of the steel produced is concentrated in Hamilton,Ontario.
manufacturing value added
Manufacturing is measured by ___________ _____ _______ or MVA. This is the gross value of manufactured products - costs of raw material and energy.
right to work states
Southeastern states are known as these because they have passed laws preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that REQUIRES workers to join a union as a condition of employment. Major reason that this region attracts manufacturers
Po basin
An area in northern Italy that is important industrially because it contains half of the countries population and 67% of its industries.
Donetsk coalfield
This coalfield located in Eastern Ukraine's Industrial district is one of the world's largest.
Silesia
Outside of the former Soviet Union this region contains the most manufacturing in Eastern Europe, includes southern Poland and northern Czech. Republic
East Asia
______ ______ is the most heterogeneous industrial region from the perspective of level of development.
Different
Situation factors and site factors help explain why industries have ________ distributions.
situation factors
Factors that involve transporting materials to and from a factory. Must minimize the cost of transporting inputs to factory and goods to consumers. Optimum occurs when input costs for transportation = cost for transporting finished goods.
site factors
This factor result from the unique characteristics of a location. Land, labor, and capital (the factors of production) are the three traditional production factors that may vary among locations.
gangue
Waste material left over after the desired metal is extracted.
bulk-reducing industry
An economic activity in which the final product weighs less than the inputs. For example the copper and steel industry
Arizona
2/3 of copper is mined in _______, which is also the state with the largest concentration of mills and smelters.
Mesabi Range
A section of low hills in northernMinnesota owned by Rockefeller in 1887, it was a source of iron ore for steel production.
market access
In recent times, the steel industry has been based more on _______ _______ then input access in places like Lake Michigan. This means that they are located near major markets.
minimills
Steel production plants that rely on steel scrap as a base material rather than ore. Products do not have the tight chemical composition of integrated plants and have narrower product lines. Demonstrates increasing power of market access over input access.
single-market manufacturers
Products sold in mostly one location so there is a cluster near the market. Example is "high" style clothing from New York City.
perishable products
Goods that must be located near the market due to being food that spoils or information that gets outdated ex. newspaper, fruit
contour lines
A line on a topographic map that connects points of equal elevation through the computation of slope.
topographic map
A map that shows surface features of an area such as mountains, valleys, plains, and plateaus by using contour lines to show changes in elevation
lower
In general the farther a product is transported the ______ the average cost per kilometer(or mile).
break of bulk point
A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another. i.e. a steel mill near the port of Baltimore receives iron ore by ship from South America and coal by train from Appalachia.
site factors
Manufacturing has largely grown in Japan and East Asia because of the increasing importance of _____ _______.
suburban
Modern factories are more likely to be ________ than near the center of a city.
labor intensive industry
An industry for which labor costs make up a high percentage of total expenses
wool industry
Major part of the clothing industry that is still present in the Northeastern U.S. because of the large amount of skill required.
post-Fordist
World economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced; instead, production has been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world and bringing places closer together in time and space than would have been imaginable at the beginning of the 20th century.
Silicon Valley
A region in California south of San Francisco that is noted for its concentration of high-technology industries. About 25% of the U.S.'s capital is spent on new industries here.
gap
Most basic industrial problem at the global scale is the ___ between the world demand for products and the world's capacity to supply them.
trading blocs
A group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs
European regional development fund
Fund allocated by the European Union. Aims for convergence, Regional competitiveness & employment, and Territorial cooperation, which is largely achieved by assisting its 3 least industrial members: Ireland, Portugal, and Greece. ERDF
new international division of labor
Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
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