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39 terms

Developmental Psych: Ch 13

STUDY
PLAY
perspective taking
the ability to assume other people's perspectives and understand their thoughts and feelings
self-esteem
the global evaluative dimension of the self
self-concept
domain-specific evaluations of the self
preconventional reasoning
the lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development; the individual's concept of good and bad is interpreted primarily by external rewards and punishment
heteronomous morality
Kohlberg's first stage in preconventional reasoning in which moral thinking is tied to punishment
individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
the second Kohlberg stage in preconventional reasoning
conventional reasoning
the second or intermediate level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development
individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
at this stage, individuals pursue their own interests but also let others do the same
conventional reasoning
at this level, individuals abide by certain standards, but they are the standards of others such as parents or the government
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
Kohlberg's third stage of moral development
mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
at this stage, individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgments
social systems morality
the fourth stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development
social systems morality
at this stage, moral judgments are based on understnading the social order, law, justice, and duty
postconventional reasoning
the highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development
postconventional reasoning
at this level, the individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code
social contract or utility and individual rights
the fifth Kohlberg stage
social contract or utility and individual rights
at this stage, individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law
universal ethical principles
the sixth and highest stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development
universal ethical principles
individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights
inductive discipline
uses reasoning and focuses children's attention on the consequences of their actions for others, positively influences moral development
justice perspective
moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions
care perspective
the moral perspective of Carol Gilligan, which views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others
social conventional reasoning
thoughts about social consensus and convention established in order to control behavior and maintain the social system
moral identity
formed when moral notions and moral commitments are central to one's life and the self is constructed with reference to moral categories
moral character
a person with this has the willpower, desires, and integrity to stand up to pressure, overcome distractions and disappointments, and behave morally
moral exemplar
someone who has lived a perfect moral life
gender stereotypes
broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about males and females
rapport talk
language of conversation and a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationships
report talk
talk that conveys information
androgyny
the presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual
popular children
children who are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by their peers
average children
children who receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from peers
neglected children
children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers
rejected children
children who are infrequently nominated as a best friend and are actively disliked by their peers
controversial children
children who are frequently nominated both as someone's best friend and as being disliked
bullying
verbal or physical behavior intended to disturb someone less powerful
intimacy in friendships
self-disclosure and the sharing of private thoughts
constructivist approach
learner-centered approach that emphasized the importance of individuals actively constructing their knowledge and understanding with guidance from the teacher
direct instruction approach
structured, teacher-centered approach that is characterized by teacher direction and control, mastery of academic skills, high expectations for students' progress, maximum time spent on learning tasks, and efforts to keep negative affect to a minimum