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Terms for chapter11 endocrine system, 12 blood, 13 Cardivascular System, 16 Respiratory System


transports gases, nutrients, hormones, metabolic wastes


regulates pH, electrolytes, stabilizes temperature, restricts its own loss


White cells, delivers antibodies


45% formed elements, 55% plasma

formed elements

Red Blood cells - erythrocytes - RBCs, White Blood cells - leukocytes - WBCs, Platelets


composed of 92% water

Plasma Proteins

Albumin- synthesized in liver
Globulins- antibodies
Fibrinogen- basic framework
for a blood clot


Red blood cell is a cell membrane surrounding a mass of hemoglobin
Hemoglobin molecule contains iron (Fe) ions that bind to oxygen
Oxygen easily binds and is released from hemoglobin

Hemoglobin Carbon Monoxide

Carbon Monoxide (CO) binds to hemoglobin but does not release
Carbon Monoxide binds (200 times more) than oxygen to hemoglobin
Carbon monoxide poisoning can easily occur from cars, fuel oil heaters, burning charcoals, and cigarettes


Neutrophils 50-70%
Attack and destroy bacteria
Lymphocytes 20-30%
Act to protect the body and its tissue
Monocytes 2-8%
Engulf items even outside the blood stream
Eosinophils 2-4%
Phagocytic, increased in allergic reactions
Basophils 1%
Release histamine and heparin


stain light purple, nucleus is lobed, consist of 2-5 sections


slightly larger than red blood cells, large round nucleus


largest blood cells, 2-3 times larger than RBC,


contain course, uniformly sized cytoplasmic granules, stain deep red


similar to eosinophils, they have fewer more irregularly shaped cytoplasmic granules

blood types

determined by antigens that attach to the surface of RBC

endocrine system

includes all endocrine glands in the body, ductless glands secrete hormones that cause slow but long lasting effects


pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, reproductive organs, and the pineal gland are all organs of the _________ system

pituitary gland

also known as the master gland the _________ ___________ lies under the brain in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and secretes 8 different hormones

anterior pituitary

Thyroid-stimulating hormone -TSH, Adrenocorticotropic hormone- ACTH, Follicle-stimulating hormone - FSH, Luteinizing hormone -LH, Prolactin -PRL, Growth Hormone -GH are produced by the ______________ ____________


oxytocin and vasopressin are excreted by the ____________ pituitary

thyroid stimulating hormone

_________ _________ _________ Targets thyroid gland, triggers the release of thyroid hormones, Controls cellular metabolism & oxygen consumption

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

______________ ______________ Stimulates the release of 3 steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex, Mineralcorticoids - salt content of blood
Glucocorticoids - increase blood glucose levels
Sex hormones - both male (androgen) and female (estrogen)

Follicle stimulating hormone

Promotes oocyte development in womenPromotes sperm production

Luteinizing hormone

Induces ovulation (egg release) in women
Induces production of testosterone in men


______________ Stimulates the formation of mammary glands and their production of milk and means before milk

growth hormone

___________ ____________ also called the human growth hormone, stimulates overall growth of the body especially in the skeletal and muscular systems of the body


______________ hormone decreases the amount of water lost by the kidney


stimulates smooth muscle cells of the uterus and begins contractions of childbirth


the acronym ___________ ___________ stands for Growth hormone, Oxytocin, Adrenocorticotropic, Thyroid hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone, Antidiuretic hormone, Prolactin

Thyroid gland

_____________ __________ is right below the adams apple and secretes two hormones, thyroxine and calcitonin


_____________ controls cellular metabolism


______________ lowers calcium levels in the blood

parathyroid glands

_____________ _____________ located on the posterior of the thyroid and increase the amount of calcium in the blood


____________ gland. Posterior of the sternum, enourmous in babies, produces hormones called thymosins which promote the production of T lymphocytes


_____________ glands are on top of each kidney produces glucocorticoids which are anti inflammatory


the adrenal __________ produces epinephrine or adrenaline which prepares the body for fight or flight and speeds up cellular energy


the _____________ lies between the stomach and small intestine, hs both endocrine and exocrine functions and produces insulin and glucagon


_____________ are the testes in males, produce testosterone, and the ovaries in women, produce estrogen


_____________ gland lies in the brain on the roof of the diencephalon and produces melatonin


athletes use ________________ steroids that are synthetic molecules of testosterone, to improve performance


Automated External Defibrilator gives an electrical shock to someones heart that has had a myocardial infarction


Implantable Cardioverter Defibrilator. Placed under the skin of someone who has a heart condition and can diliver ashock if ventrical tachardia or ventricular fibrillation occur


corrects heart beats that are too fast


corrects heartbeats that are two slow


________________ circulation, superior and inferior vena cava, Right Atrium, tricuspid, right ventricle, pulmonary artery to lungs, pulmonary veins, to left atrium, bicuspid (mitral) to left ventricle, aorta to head and body


The ____________ covers the outside of the heart


___________ makes up the muscular wall of the heart


makes up the inner surfaces of the heart and the valves


a tough layer of tissue that surrounds the heart is called the fibrous ____________


the __________ pericardium separates the fibrous pericardium from the epicardium


the ___________ cavity is the space between the epicardium and the parietal pericardium


__________ is the high pressure of ventricles contracting - Contraction


________ is the low pressure of ventricles relaxing - Relaxation

p wave

______________ is the atrial contraction

QSR Complex

___________ is the ventrical contraction

t wave

___________ is when the ventricle returns to resting state


______________ is when deposits of fatty materials such as cholesterol, form within and on the inner linning of the arterial walls

ductus arteriosis

__________ __________ the duct that is present in a fetus that allows blood to bypass the lungs

foramen ovale

_________ ____________ fetus circulation where blood bypasses the lungs


hardening of the arteries


__________ is a bulge in a weakened part of the blood vessel wall


__________ or high blood pressure is when the resting blood pressure is 140/90 120/80 is considered normal


progressive degeneration of the heart muscle and is irreversible. Caused by chronic alcoholism and chronic heart disease, viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi


_____________ stands for Environmental tobacco smoke. Studies now show that it is just as dangerous as actually smoking and kills an estimated 53,000 annually

respiratory system

________________ includes the lungs the airways leading to the lungs and the muscles that move air in and out of the lungs

surface area

the ___________ ____________ of the lings is 35 times larger than the surface area of the body and is the equivalent to the size of a tennis court


__________ is the exchange of gases from the environment and living cells


____________ respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and cells


______________ respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and the lungs


___________ is composed of three sections the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx


part of the pharynx located behind the nose is called the __________________


the part of the pharynx located behind the mouth is called the ____________


the ___________ is the area of the pharynx that extends from the oropharynx to the esophagus


the _________ is composed of 9 cartilages stabalized by ligaments and skeletal muscles, during swallowing, the epiglottis folds back to prevent food from going into the lungs, thyroid cartilage forms the anterior sides of the larynx (adams apple)


______________ is a tough flexible tube about 4" long, lined with c shaped cartilages that keep it from collapsing. Also known as the windpipe


___________ branch off of the tracea. the right is larger and more verticle than the left which is smaller and angled


the place where gas exchange takes place, the ______________ have the surface area of a tennis court. Each lung contains 150million

lung lobes

there are two __________ ____________ in the left lung and three in the right lung


the __________ pleura surrounds each lung


the thoracic cavity is surrounded by a membrane called the _______ pleura


_____________ is a condition in which there has been a puncture of the thoracic cavity allowing air into the pleural cavity creating space between the membranes


____________ is the condition of a colapsed lung


__________ the dome shaped muscle between the thoracic and abdominal cavity

tidal volume

___________ is the term used for the 500mL of air that is moved in and out of the lungs during a quiet respiratory cycle


__________ or the common cold can be caused by over 200 different viruses


______________ cause 50% of all colds


___________ caused by bacteria in the pharynx


the disease caused by bacteria in the soil is called _____________


also known as whooping couch, _____________ is a highly contagious disease of infants and young children


___________ is highly contagious and caused by bacteria, the leading cause of disease world wide with 3 million deaths each year. Anyone who breaths is at risk


_________ characterized by unusually sensitive and irritable conducting passageways, triggered by allergen or pollen and causes breathlessness and wheezing due to bronchoconstriction

cystic fibrosis

___________ is an inherited diseaseof 1 in 30,000. The exocrine system cant transport water properly. Secretions are thick and gooey and the lungs cant clean themselves out.


___________ is a condition where there is a lack of surfactant. It is found in premature babies, the lungs start producing surcfactant at the end of the 6th fetal month. respiratory distress syndrome


a progressive degenerative disease that destroys alviolar walls. Alvioli combine to form larger chambers reducing surface area, lost of tussue elasticity makes it harder to force air out of the lungsis called ____________


___________ refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food

digestive system

the _____________ _______________ consists of the ailmentary canal, leading from mouth to anus and several accessory organs whose secretions aid the processes of digestion


the ___________ canal is a muscular tube about 9 meters long that passes through the bodys ventral cavity.


the inner layer of the ailmentary canal that is lined with epithelium and carries on secretion and absorption is called the ____________


the _______________ is the middle layer of the ailmentary canal and made up of loose connective tissue, and houses blood and lymph vessels and nerves. It nourishes the surrounding layers of the canal


the ________ layer consists of inner circular fibers and outer longitudinal fibersthat propel food through the canal


___________ is the outer most layer of the canal and is made from visceral peritoneum that protects underlying tissues and secretes serous fluid to keep it from sticking to other tissues in the abdominal canal

mixing movements

movements of the tube that occur when smooth muscles contract rhythmically in small sections of the tube

propelling movements

wave like motions called peristalsis that are caused by contraction behind a mass of food as relaxation allows the mass to enter the next part of the tube


attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth

lingual tonsils

located on the roof of the tongue

palatine tonsils

located in the back of the mouth and help provide the body with protection from infection

pharyngeal tonsils

located in the posterior wall of the pharynx, above the border of the soft palate

salivary glands

produce amylase and mucous that lubricate and bind food. Salivary gland are triggered to produce saliva with the sight or smell of food

parotid glands

located in fornt of the ear and are the largest of the major salivary glands and produce a clear watery fluid rich in amylase

submandibular glands

located on the floor of the mouth and secrete a more viscous fluid

sublingual glands

located under the tongue and are the smallest of the major salivary glands. secrete a saliva that is thick and stringy


the cavity lying behind the mouth, connects th nasal andoral cavities to the larynx and esophagus


______________ provide friction for moving food around in the mouth


___________ tonsils are lymphatic tissue located at the roof of the mouthamylase


____________ forms the roof of the oral cavity and has an anterior hard _________ and a posterior soft __________


the _________ and the soft palate function together to close off the nasal cavity during swallowing


_________ tonsils are located in the back of the mouth and help protect the body from infection


___________ tonsils are located in the posterior wall of the pharynx above the border of the soft palate

amylase, mucous

salivary glands contain serous cells that produce a watery fluid with_________ and __________ cells that produce lubricating and binding agents

parotid, amylase

__________ lay in front of the ear, ae the largest salivary glands, secrete clear watery fluid rich in ________


____________ glands are inferior to the tongue and are the smallest of the salivary glands, and secrete thick and stringy salivia


__________ glands are located on the floor of the mouth and secrete a more viscous fluid

pharynx, esophagus

___________ is the cavity lying behind the mouth, and the _______ is a muscular tube leading to the stomach


------------- top portion of the phayrnx


___________ middle portion of the pharynx


___________ bottom portion of pharynx


_________ sphincter controls the release of food from the stomach into the small intestine

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