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128 terms

Chapter 11,12, 13,15, and 16

Terms for chapter11 endocrine system, 12 blood, 13 Cardivascular System, 16 Respiratory System
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transportation
transports gases, nutrients, hormones, metabolic wastes
regulation
regulates pH, electrolytes, stabilizes temperature, restricts its own loss
protection
White cells, delivers antibodies
composition
45% formed elements, 55% plasma
formed elements
Red Blood cells - erythrocytes - RBCs, White Blood cells - leukocytes - WBCs, Platelets
plasma
composed of 92% water
Plasma Proteins
Albumin- synthesized in liver
Globulins- antibodies
Fibrinogen- basic framework
for a blood clot
Hemoglobin
Red blood cell is a cell membrane surrounding a mass of hemoglobin
Hemoglobin molecule contains iron (Fe) ions that bind to oxygen
Oxygen easily binds and is released from hemoglobin
Hemoglobin Carbon Monoxide
Carbon Monoxide (CO) binds to hemoglobin but does not release
Carbon Monoxide binds (200 times more) than oxygen to hemoglobin
Carbon monoxide poisoning can easily occur from cars, fuel oil heaters, burning charcoals, and cigarettes
Leukocytes
Neutrophils 50-70%
Attack and destroy bacteria
Lymphocytes 20-30%
Act to protect the body and its tissue
Monocytes 2-8%
Engulf items even outside the blood stream
Eosinophils 2-4%
Phagocytic, increased in allergic reactions
Basophils 1%
Release histamine and heparin
Neutrophils
stain light purple, nucleus is lobed, consist of 2-5 sections
Lymphocytes
slightly larger than red blood cells, large round nucleus
Monocytes
largest blood cells, 2-3 times larger than RBC,
Eosinophils
contain course, uniformly sized cytoplasmic granules, stain deep red
Basophils
similar to eosinophils, they have fewer more irregularly shaped cytoplasmic granules
blood types
determined by antigens that attach to the surface of RBC
endocrine system
includes all endocrine glands in the body, ductless glands secrete hormones that cause slow but long lasting effects
endocrine
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, reproductive organs, and the pineal gland are all organs of the _________ system
pituitary gland
also known as the master gland the _________ ___________ lies under the brain in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and secretes 8 different hormones
anterior pituitary
Thyroid-stimulating hormone -TSH, Adrenocorticotropic hormone- ACTH, Follicle-stimulating hormone - FSH, Luteinizing hormone -LH, Prolactin -PRL, Growth Hormone -GH are produced by the ______________ ____________
posterior
oxytocin and vasopressin are excreted by the ____________ pituitary
thyroid stimulating hormone
_________ _________ _________ Targets thyroid gland, triggers the release of thyroid hormones, Controls cellular metabolism & oxygen consumption
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
______________ ______________ Stimulates the release of 3 steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex, Mineralcorticoids - salt content of blood
Glucocorticoids - increase blood glucose levels
Sex hormones - both male (androgen) and female (estrogen)
Follicle stimulating hormone
Promotes oocyte development in womenPromotes sperm production
Luteinizing hormone
Induces ovulation (egg release) in women
Induces production of testosterone in men
Prolactin
______________ Stimulates the formation of mammary glands and their production of milk and means before milk
growth hormone
___________ ____________ also called the human growth hormone, stimulates overall growth of the body especially in the skeletal and muscular systems of the body
antidiuretic
______________ hormone decreases the amount of water lost by the kidney
oxytocin
stimulates smooth muscle cells of the uterus and begins contractions of childbirth
GOAT FLAP
the acronym ___________ ___________ stands for Growth hormone, Oxytocin, Adrenocorticotropic, Thyroid hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone, Antidiuretic hormone, Prolactin
Thyroid gland
_____________ __________ is right below the adams apple and secretes two hormones, thyroxine and calcitonin
Thyroxine
_____________ controls cellular metabolism
calcitonin
______________ lowers calcium levels in the blood
parathyroid glands
_____________ _____________ located on the posterior of the thyroid and increase the amount of calcium in the blood
Thymus
____________ gland. Posterior of the sternum, enourmous in babies, produces hormones called thymosins which promote the production of T lymphocytes
adrenal
_____________ glands are on top of each kidney produces glucocorticoids which are anti inflammatory
cortex
the adrenal __________ produces epinephrine or adrenaline which prepares the body for fight or flight and speeds up cellular energy
pancreas
the _____________ lies between the stomach and small intestine, hs both endocrine and exocrine functions and produces insulin and glucagon
gonads
_____________ are the testes in males, produce testosterone, and the ovaries in women, produce estrogen
Pineal
_____________ gland lies in the brain on the roof of the diencephalon and produces melatonin
anabolic
athletes use ________________ steroids that are synthetic molecules of testosterone, to improve performance
AED
Automated External Defibrilator gives an electrical shock to someones heart that has had a myocardial infarction
ICD
Implantable Cardioverter Defibrilator. Placed under the skin of someone who has a heart condition and can diliver ashock if ventrical tachardia or ventricular fibrillation occur
ICD
corrects heart beats that are too fast
pacemaker
corrects heartbeats that are two slow
coronary
________________ circulation, superior and inferior vena cava, Right Atrium, tricuspid, right ventricle, pulmonary artery to lungs, pulmonary veins, to left atrium, bicuspid (mitral) to left ventricle, aorta to head and body
epicardium
The ____________ covers the outside of the heart
myocardium
___________ makes up the muscular wall of the heart
endocardium
makes up the inner surfaces of the heart and the valves
pericardium
a tough layer of tissue that surrounds the heart is called the fibrous ____________
parietal
the __________ pericardium separates the fibrous pericardium from the epicardium
pericardial
the ___________ cavity is the space between the epicardium and the parietal pericardium
Systole
__________ is the high pressure of ventricles contracting - Contraction
Diastole
________ is the low pressure of ventricles relaxing - Relaxation
p wave
______________ is the atrial contraction
QSR Complex
___________ is the ventrical contraction
t wave
___________ is when the ventricle returns to resting state
atherosclerosis
______________ is when deposits of fatty materials such as cholesterol, form within and on the inner linning of the arterial walls
ductus arteriosis
__________ __________ the duct that is present in a fetus that allows blood to bypass the lungs
foramen ovale
_________ ____________ fetus circulation where blood bypasses the lungs
arteriosclerosis
hardening of the arteries
aneurysm
__________ is a bulge in a weakened part of the blood vessel wall
Hypertension
__________ or high blood pressure is when the resting blood pressure is 140/90 120/80 is considered normal
cardiomyopathies
progressive degeneration of the heart muscle and is irreversible. Caused by chronic alcoholism and chronic heart disease, viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi
ETS
_____________ stands for Environmental tobacco smoke. Studies now show that it is just as dangerous as actually smoking and kills an estimated 53,000 annually
respiratory system
________________ includes the lungs the airways leading to the lungs and the muscles that move air in and out of the lungs
surface area
the ___________ ____________ of the lings is 35 times larger than the surface area of the body and is the equivalent to the size of a tennis court
respiration
__________ is the exchange of gases from the environment and living cells
internal
____________ respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and cells
external
______________ respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and the lungs
pharynx
___________ is composed of three sections the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx
nasopharynx
part of the pharynx located behind the nose is called the __________________
oropharynx
the part of the pharynx located behind the mouth is called the ____________
laryngopharynx
the ___________ is the area of the pharynx that extends from the oropharynx to the esophagus
larynx
the _________ is composed of 9 cartilages stabalized by ligaments and skeletal muscles, during swallowing, the epiglottis folds back to prevent food from going into the lungs, thyroid cartilage forms the anterior sides of the larynx (adams apple)
trachea
______________ is a tough flexible tube about 4" long, lined with c shaped cartilages that keep it from collapsing. Also known as the windpipe
bronchi
___________ branch off of the tracea. the right is larger and more verticle than the left which is smaller and angled
alveoli
the place where gas exchange takes place, the ______________ have the surface area of a tennis court. Each lung contains 150million
lung lobes
there are two __________ ____________ in the left lung and three in the right lung
visceral
the __________ pleura surrounds each lung
parietal
the thoracic cavity is surrounded by a membrane called the _______ pleura
pneumothorax
_____________ is a condition in which there has been a puncture of the thoracic cavity allowing air into the pleural cavity creating space between the membranes
atelectasis
____________ is the condition of a colapsed lung
diaphram
__________ the dome shaped muscle between the thoracic and abdominal cavity
tidal volume
___________ is the term used for the 500mL of air that is moved in and out of the lungs during a quiet respiratory cycle
coryza
__________ or the common cold can be caused by over 200 different viruses
rhinoviruses
______________ cause 50% of all colds
diptheria
___________ caused by bacteria in the pharynx
tetanus
the disease caused by bacteria in the soil is called _____________
pertussis
also known as whooping couch, _____________ is a highly contagious disease of infants and young children
tuberculosis
___________ is highly contagious and caused by bacteria, the leading cause of disease world wide with 3 million deaths each year. Anyone who breaths is at risk
asthma
_________ characterized by unusually sensitive and irritable conducting passageways, triggered by allergen or pollen and causes breathlessness and wheezing due to bronchoconstriction
cystic fibrosis
___________ is an inherited diseaseof 1 in 30,000. The exocrine system cant transport water properly. Secretions are thick and gooey and the lungs cant clean themselves out.
RDS
___________ is a condition where there is a lack of surfactant. It is found in premature babies, the lungs start producing surcfactant at the end of the 6th fetal month. respiratory distress syndrome
emphysema
a progressive degenerative disease that destroys alviolar walls. Alvioli combine to form larger chambers reducing surface area, lost of tussue elasticity makes it harder to force air out of the lungsis called ____________
digestion
___________ refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
digestive system
the _____________ _______________ consists of the ailmentary canal, leading from mouth to anus and several accessory organs whose secretions aid the processes of digestion
ailmentary
the ___________ canal is a muscular tube about 9 meters long that passes through the bodys ventral cavity.
mucosa
the inner layer of the ailmentary canal that is lined with epithelium and carries on secretion and absorption is called the ____________
submucosa
the _______________ is the middle layer of the ailmentary canal and made up of loose connective tissue, and houses blood and lymph vessels and nerves. It nourishes the surrounding layers of the canal
muscular
the ________ layer consists of inner circular fibers and outer longitudinal fibersthat propel food through the canal
serosa
___________ is the outer most layer of the canal and is made from visceral peritoneum that protects underlying tissues and secretes serous fluid to keep it from sticking to other tissues in the abdominal canal
mixing movements
movements of the tube that occur when smooth muscles contract rhythmically in small sections of the tube
propelling movements
wave like motions called peristalsis that are caused by contraction behind a mass of food as relaxation allows the mass to enter the next part of the tube
frenulum
attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth
lingual tonsils
located on the roof of the tongue
palatine tonsils
located in the back of the mouth and help provide the body with protection from infection
pharyngeal tonsils
located in the posterior wall of the pharynx, above the border of the soft palate
salivary glands
produce amylase and mucous that lubricate and bind food. Salivary gland are triggered to produce saliva with the sight or smell of food
parotid glands
located in fornt of the ear and are the largest of the major salivary glands and produce a clear watery fluid rich in amylase
submandibular glands
located on the floor of the mouth and secrete a more viscous fluid
sublingual glands
located under the tongue and are the smallest of the major salivary glands. secrete a saliva that is thick and stringy
pharynx
the cavity lying behind the mouth, connects th nasal andoral cavities to the larynx and esophagus
papillea
______________ provide friction for moving food around in the mouth
lingual
___________ tonsils are lymphatic tissue located at the roof of the mouthamylase
palate
____________ forms the roof of the oral cavity and has an anterior hard _________ and a posterior soft __________
uvula
the _________ and the soft palate function together to close off the nasal cavity during swallowing
palatine
_________ tonsils are located in the back of the mouth and help protect the body from infection
pharyngeal
___________ tonsils are located in the posterior wall of the pharynx above the border of the soft palate
amylase, mucous
salivary glands contain serous cells that produce a watery fluid with_________ and __________ cells that produce lubricating and binding agents
parotid, amylase
__________ lay in front of the ear, ae the largest salivary glands, secrete clear watery fluid rich in ________
sublingual
____________ glands are inferior to the tongue and are the smallest of the salivary glands, and secrete thick and stringy salivia
submandibular
__________ glands are located on the floor of the mouth and secrete a more viscous fluid
pharynx, esophagus
___________ is the cavity lying behind the mouth, and the _______ is a muscular tube leading to the stomach
nasopharynx
------------- top portion of the phayrnx
oropharynx
___________ middle portion of the pharynx
laryngopharynx
___________ bottom portion of pharynx
pyloric
_________ sphincter controls the release of food from the stomach into the small intestine