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IB Geography Paper 1 review
Terms in this set (61)
Define "Annual Growth Rate"
The annual growth rate is found by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate and is expressed as an percentage. Highest rates are found in Africa, while the lowest in North America and Europe
(Total number of births) / (total population) x 1000 per year
Crude Birth Rate
The average number of births per thousand women of child bearing age
Total Fertility Rate
How is the Status of Women assessed?
The status of women is assessed by the gender-related development index (GDI), which measures the inequality between the sexes in life expectancy, education, and standard of living. In countries where the GDI is low the birth rates are often high, in contrast, areas with a high GDI tend to have a lower total fertility rate, for example Singapore (tfr of 1.5)
(Total number of deaths of children < 1 year old) / (total number of live births per year) x 1000
Infant Mortality Rate. High IMRs are found only in the poorest countries, for example Niger has an IMR of 23%.
(Total number of deaths of children aged 1-5 years old) / (total number of children aged 1-5 years) x 1000
Child Mortality Rate
The average number of years that a person can be expected to live, given that demographic factors remain unchanged
The measurable characteristics of the population. This includes age, sex, ethnicity, religion, and occupation
What is a population pyramid
A population pyramid is a graph the shows the characteristics between the age structure and female/male ratio. You can determine a countries development by looking at its population pyramid.
The tendency for a population to grow despite the fall in the birth rates or fertility levels
Population Momentum. This occurs when a large majority of the women population enter into the child-bearing stage, and thus although the fertility rates might be decreasing, there are more women having children. Example: 1000 women with a fertility rate of 3 = 3000 children, population momentum = 2000 women with a fertility rate of 2 and thus this equals 4000 children.
Predictions about future population based on trends in fertility, mortality, and migration
The way in which the rights, restrictions and responsibilities that people have with respect to land are held.
The measurement of the working population and the dependent population. This Formula is used:
(population aged <15 + population aged > 60) / (Population aged 16-60)
Dependency Ratio. It is very crude, for example many people stay on at school after the age of 15 and many people work after the age of 60. But it is a useful measure to compare countries or to track changes over time.
What are some Advantages of a youthful population?
- Large potential work force
- Large Medical Costs
- Attractive to new investments
- Source of new innovation and ideas
- Development of services such as schools.
What are some disadvantages of a youthful population?
- High costs of supporting schools and clinics
- Need to provide sufficient food, housing, and water to a growing population
- High rates of unemployment
- Large numbers living in poor quality housing
High rates of population growth
What are some Advantages of an ageing population?
- The elderly may have skills and training, and are sometimes preferred over younger workers.
- The elderly may look after their grandchildren and therefore allow both parents to work, for example Japan
Ways in which a government controls its population numbers by attempting to increase its population size
Ways in which a government controls its population numbers by attempting to decrease or limit its population size
Why are high rates of population growth often associated with a low status of women?
- A wife continues to bear children to prove her fertility, and to prevent the husband from marrying another wide. For example Nigeria
- Wives in polygamous ( more than 1 wife) families compete with each other to produce the most children
- Children provide labour
- Children are and investment as they provide the old-age security for their parents.
- Women have no say in determining the size of the family
Give an example of a anti-natalist country and explain their strategies
China- In 1979 they imposed the "one child" policy. The impact was dramatic as the birth rate fell from 33% to 17%. This policy was enforced by law and thus most families did not have an option unless they wanted to receive a very high fine. This policy was introduced because the government believed they had too many people.
Migration is the movement of people, involving permanent change of residence. It can be internal or external (international), and voluntary or forced.
State Ravensteins 7 laws of migration
1. Most migrants move only a short distance, and then typically to major cities.
2. Rapidly growing cities are populated by migrants from nearby rural areas; in turn, the "gaps" left in the rural population are filled by migrants from more distant areas.
3. The process of dispersion is the inverse of the process of absorption and exhibits similar features.
4. Each main current of migration produces a compensating counter current.
5. Long-distance migrants tend to move to major cities.
6. Rural people have a higher propensity to migrate than urban people.
7. Women have a higher propensity to migrate than men.
Explain Lee's Migration Model
According to Lee there are pull and push factors at the place of origin and destination. More pull factors attract more migrants.
Explain the term "Pull Factor"
Pull factors are attractions that exist at another place, and would thus be a reason for someone to migrate there. This could include better wages, more jobs, better schools, health care etc.
Explain the term "Push Factor"
Opposite of Pull factors, push factors are the negative features that cause a person to move away from a place. Example: Unemployment, low wages, natural disasters
What are the impacts of migration on the country of Origin?
+ Population pressure reduced
+ Remittances are sent home
+ Could reduce unemployment
- Removal of the young, more educated population. For example Indian software experts to the USA
- Decline in local market/pulling power
- Reduced workforce
- Brain Drain
- Closure of public services such as schools, hospitals etc.
What are the impacts of migration on the country of destination ?
+ Population growth
+ Larger workforce, migrants often do the jobs that the locals do not want to do (example. Janitor)
+ Increased demand for housing
+ New skilled, young work force
+ Cultural diffusion
+ Increased demand for services
- Racism and segregation
- Cultural Disharmony
- Overcrowding and ghettoization
- Spread of disease
- Money leaves the local economy through remittances sent back home
A measurement of developments that bases its rating on 3 variables:
Literacy and avg. years of schooling
Standard of living ( Purchasing power)
Human Development Index
When the individual or household has a free choice about whether to move or not
When the individual or household has little or no choice but to move
A person who has been forced to leave home and country because of 'a well-founded fear of persecution' on account of race, religion, social group or political opinion
as for a refugee, people who are forced to leave their home, but in this case they remain in the same country
Internally displaced people
money sent back by migrants to their family in the home community
What is GNI ?
comprises the total value of goods and services produced within a country (i.e. its GDP), together with its income received from other countries (notably interest and dividends), less similar payments made to other countries
State the 8 millennium Development Goals and their Targets.
1. Eradicating extreme poverty and hunger - Reduce 50% of the people living on less than 1$ a day. Reduce 50% of the proportion of people suffering from hunger
2. achieving universal primary education - Ensure all children complete a full course of primary schooling
3. Promoting gender equality and empowering women - Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005. Ensure literacy parity between men and women. Women's equal representation in national parliament.
4. Reducing child mortality rates - Reduce by 2/3's the under 5 mortality rate. Universal child immunization against measles
5. Improving maternal health - Reduce maternal mortality ratio by 75%
6. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases - Halt the and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and tuberculosis.
7.Ensuring environmental sustainability - Revers the loss of forests.
8. Developing a global partnership for development - Reduce youth unemployment
Define "Purchasing Power Parity" (PPP)
What a person can buy with their income at local prices
A measurement of inequality
Gini coefficient - the higher the Gini coefficient, the greater the inequality.
Define Fair Trade
Fair trade can be defined as trade that attempts to be socially, economically and environmentally responsible.
For example, Prudent exports, which grows as well as exports pineapples, has introduced better working conditions for its farmers, including longer contracts and wages.
An arrangement among a group of nations to allow free trade between member countries but to impose tariffs on other countries who may with to trade with them.
Trade bloc. For example the EU.
Explain The Effectiveness of Aid, Both when it is and when it is not effective
When aid is effective:
+ It provides humanitarian relief
+ It provides external resources for investment and finances projects that could not be undertaken otherwise
+ Project assistance helps expand much needed infrastructure
+ Aid can support better economic and social policies
When aid is Ineffective:
- Aid might allow countries to postpone improving economic management and mobilization of domestic resources
- Aid can replace domestic savings
- Te provision of aid might promote dependency rather than self-reliance
- Aid doesn't always reaches those who need it, the poorest people in the poorest countries
- If aid stops coming a country might be other-reliant and would face big problems.
Define Global Warming
Global Warming refers to the increase in temperatures around the world that has been noticed over the last 50 years
Define The Greenhouse effect
The greenhouse effect is the increasing amount of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere as a result of human activities, and their impact on atmospheric systems.
Name 3 greenhouse gases
methane - cattle emit over 100 million tonnes of methane each year.
What are some effects of Global warming?
A rise in sea level, causing flooding - up to 200 million could be displaced
An increase in storm activity
Changes in Agricultural patterns
Extinction of up to 40% of species of wildlife
What is Soil degradation?
Soil degradation is the decline in quality and quantity of soil. It includes:
- Erosion by wind (accounts for more than 80% of the degraded land worldwide)
- Biological degradation (loss of humus and plant/animal life)
- Physical degradation (loss of structure, changes in permeability)
- Chemical degradation (acidification, declining fertility, changes in pH, salinization, and chemical toxicity)
What are some causes of Soil degradation?
- The reduction of the natural vegatative cover, which renders the topsoil more susceptible to erosion
- Unsustainable land-use practices such as excessive irrigation, the inappropriate use of fertilizers and pesticides and overgrazing by livestock
- Groundwater overabstraction, which may lead to dry soils, resulting in physical degradation.
- Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, which makes soils less suitable to sustain their original land cover and land use.
Define Water Stress
When per capita water supply is less than 1700 m3 per year, an areas suffers from Water Stress and is subject to frequent water shortages. Some 2.3 billion people live in water-stressed areas
Explain the 2 types of water scarcity
Physical Water Scarcity:
Occurs where water consumption exceeds 60% of the usable supply. To help water needs, some countries such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait import much of their food and invest in desalinization plants
Economic water scarcity:
Occurs where a country physically has sufficient water resources to meet its needs, but additional storage and transport facilities are required.
Biodiversity is the vairiety of all forms of life on earth - plants, animals, abd micro-organisms.
What are some of the uses for Tropical Rainforests
Charcoal, saw logs, gums, resins and oils, pulpwood, industrial chemicals, medicines, tourism.
Watershed protection, flood and landslide protection, soil erosion control.
Fuelwood and charcoal, fodder for agriculture, building poles, fruits and nuts etc.
Define Arable Land
Arable land refers to the amount of land required for growing crops
Define Pasture land
Refers to the resources required for growing animals for meat, hides, milk, etc.
Define "Ecological Footprint"
The ecological footprint calculates the amount of the earth's bioproductive space needed to keep a population at its current level of resource consumption, it is measured in hectares or acres. The calculation take into account the following resources:
Infrastructure needs (transportation, factories, housing based on the built-up land used by these needs.
Energy costs - the land required for absorbing carbon dioxide emissions.
Explain Malthus's principles of population
Malthus believed that there was a finite optimum population size in relation to food supply, and that any increase in population beyond this point would lead to a decline in the standard in living and to "war, famine and disease". His theory was based on two principles:
1. The absence of checks, population would grow at a geometric or exponential rate and could double every year
2. Food supply at best only increase at an arithmetic rate
Explain Boserup's Theory
Boserup believed that people have the resources of knowledge and technology to increase food production and that when a need arises someone will find a solution.
Name some of the ways food production has increased over time
Draining marshall lands
reclaiming land from the sea
cross-breeding of cattle
high-yield varieties of plants
terracing on steep slopes
growing crops in greenhouses
Using artificial fertilizer and pesticides
What are the alternative sources of energy
Define the term "Recycling"
Recycling refers to the processing of industrial household waste so that material can be reused. This saves scarce raw materials and helps reduce pollution.
Define the term "Reuse"
Reuse refers to the multiple use of a product by returning it to the manufacturer or processor each time.
What is the Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol was an addition to the Rio convention. It gave all MEDCs legally binding targets for cuts in emissions from the 1990 level by 2008-2012. The EU agreed to cut emissions by 8%, Usa 6%.
There are 3 main ways for countries to keep the Kyoto target without cutting domestic emissions:
1. Plant forests to absorb carbon or change agricultural practices
2. Install clean technology in other countries and claim carbon credit for themselves.
3. Buy carbon credits from countries such as Russia where traditional heavy industries have declined and national carbon limits are underused
Globally, what is the pattern in life expectancy?
High in MEDCs, low in LEDCs, Brandt line, lower in countries w/AIDS, such as Zimbabwe. Russia - decrease after USSR breakup, so also low.
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